Polymer Dispersions

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  • Polymer Dispersions and Their Industrial ApplicationsEdited by Dieter Urban and

    Koichi Takamura

    Polymer Dispersions and Their Industrial Applications. Edited by Dieter Urban and Koichi TakamuraCopyright 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA

    ISBNs: 3-527-30286-7 (Hardback); 3-527-60058-2 (Electronic)

  • edited by Dieter Urban andKoichi Takamura

    Polymer Dispersions and Their Industrial Applications

    Polymer Dispersions and Their Industrial Applications. Edited by Dieter Urban and Koichi TakamuraCopyright 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA

    ISBNs: 3-527-30286-7 (Hardback); 3-527-60058-2 (Electronic)

  • IV

    Editors

    Dr. Dieter UrbanDr. Koichi TakamuraBASF Corp.11501 Steele Creek RoadCharlotte, NC 28273, USA

    Cover photograph Scanning electron micrograph of a hollow sphere created by the deposition of 7.9 m polystyrene particles on a nitrogen bubble during their preparation in the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Challenger (courtesy of the Emulsion Polymers Institute, Lehigh University,Bethlehem, PA, USA).

    This book was carefully produced. Never-theless, editors, authors and publisher do not warrant the informationcontained therein to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind thatstatements, data, illustrations, proceduraldetails or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate.

    Library of Congress Card No.: applied for

    British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    Die Deutsche Bibliothek CIP Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA catalogue record for this publication is available from Die Deutsche Bibliothek

    2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, WeinheimAll rights reserved (including those oftranslation into other languages). No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by photoprinting, micro-film, or any other means nor transmittedor translated into a machine language without written permission from the publishers. Registered names, trademarks,etc. used in this book, even when notspecifically marked as such, are not to beconsidered unprotected by law.

    Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany Printed on acid-free paper

    Typesetting TypoDesign Hecker GmbH, LeimenPrinting betz-druck GmbH, DarmstadtBinding Grobuchbinderei J. SchfferGmbH & Co. KG, Grnstadt

    ISBN 3-527-30286-7

    Polymer Dispersions and Their Industrial Applications. Edited by Dieter Urban and Koichi TakamuraCopyright 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA

    ISBNs: 3-527-30286-7 (Hardback); 3-527-60058-2 (Electronic)

  • VContents

    Preface XIII

    1 Introduction 11.1 Names and Definitions 11.2 Properties of Polymer Dispersions 31.3 Important Raw Materials 81.4 Commercial Importance of Polymer Dispersions 101.5 Manufacturers of Polymer Dispersions 12

    References 14

    2 Synthesis of Polymer Dispersions 152.1 Introduction 152.2 Chemistry 172.2.1 Mechanism of Emulsion Polymerization 172.2.2 Major Monomers 232.2.3 Functional Monomers 262.2.4 Surfactants 272.2.5 Initiator Systems 302.2.6 Other Ingredients 322.3 Manufacturing Processes 342.3.1 Types of Process 342.3.2 Influence of Process Conditions on Polymer/Colloidal Properties 372.3.3 Equipment Considerations 392.3.4 Safety Considerations 40

    References 40

    3 Characterization of Aqueous Polymer Dispersions 413.1 Introduction 413.2 Polymer Dispersions 423.2.1 General Characterization of Dispersions 423.2.2 Characterization of Polymer Particles 483.2.3 Residual Volatiles 563.2.4 Aqueous Phase Analysis 57

    Polymer Dispersions and Their Industrial Applications. Edited by Dieter Urban and Koichi TakamuraCopyright 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA

    ISBNs: 3-527-30286-7 (Hardback); 3-527-60058-2 (Electronic)

  • VI Contents

    3.3 Polymer Films 583.3.1 Film Formation 593.3.2 Macroscopic Characterization of Polymer Films 603.3.3 Microscopic Characterization of Polymers 68

    References 72

    4 Applications in the Paper Industry 754.1 Introduction 754.2 The Paper Industry 764.3 Surface Sizing 794.4 Paper Coating 814.4.1 Coating Techniques 844.4.2 Pigments used in Coating Colors 864.4.3 Co-binders and Thickeners used in Coating Colors 874.4.4 Binders used in Coating Colors 904.4.5 Test Methods 974.5 Concluding Remarks 100

    Acknowledgments 100References 101

    5 Applications for Printing Inks 1035.1 Introduction 1035.1.1 Flexographic Ink 1045.1.2 Gravure Ink 1065.2 Ink Composition 1065.2.1 Pigment Dispersion 1085.2.2 Emulsion Vehicle 1095.2.3 Solution Vehicle 1125.2.4 Waterborne Wax Emulsions and Powders 1135.2.5 Ink Additives 1135.3 Physical Properties and Test Methods 1145.3.1 Typical Properties 1145.3.2 Application Tests 1155.3.3 Test Method Abstracts 1155.4 Inks for Flexible Substrates (Films) 1175.4.1 Surface Print Film 1185.4.2 Lawn and Garden Bags 1185.5 Inks for Paper Board Substrates 1185.5.1 Folding Cartons 1185.5.2 Direct Print Corrugated Packages 1195.5.3 Pre-print Corrugated Packages 1195.6 Inks for Poly-coated Board 1205.6.1 Milk Cartons 1205.6.2 Cup and Plate 1205.7 Inks for Paper Products 120

  • Contents VII

    5.7.1 Multiple Wall Bags 1215.7.2 Gift Wrap and Envelopes 1215.7.3 Newspapers 1215.7.4 Towel and Tissue 122

    References 122

    6 Applications for Decorative and Protective Coatings 1236.1 Introduction 1236.1.1 Market Overview 1236.1.2 Coating Industry Trends 1246.1.3 Coatings Provide Decoration and Protection 1246.2 Overview of Coating Formulations 1256.2.1 Volume Solids and Pigment Volume Content 1256.2.2 Polymer Matrix 1276.2.3 Film Formation 1286.2.4 Typical Polymer Compositions 1296.2.5 Pigments, Extenders, and Additives 1326.3 Decorative Coatings 1376.3.1 Emulsion Polymers in Decorative Coatings 1376.3.2 Polymer Compositions used for Emulsion-based Decorative Coatings 1376.3.3 Regional Distinctions in Decorative Coatings 1386.3.4 Market Size of Decorative Coatings 1386.4 Interior Decorative Coatings 1396.4.1 Key Performance Features 1396.4.2 Interior Decorative Coating Formulations 1406.4.3 Standard Application and Performance Tests 1426.5 Exterior Decorative Coatings 1466.5.1 Key Performance Features 1466.5.2 Exterior Decorative Coating Formulations 1476.5.3 Standard Application and Performance Tests 1476.6 Elastomeric Wall Coatings 1496.6.1 Key Performance Features 1496.6.2 Typical Elastomeric Wall Coating Formulations 1506.6.3 Standard Application and Performance Tests 1516.7 Primer Coatings 1516.7.1 Key Performance Features 1526.7.2 Primer Formulations 1526.7.3 Standard Application and Performance Tests 1536.8 Protective and Industrial Coatings 1546.8.1 Copolymers used in Protective and Industrial Coatings 1546.8.2 Market Size 1556.8.3 Industrial Maintenance Coatings 1556.8.4 Key Performance Features 1556.8.5 Formulation Characteristics for Industrial Maintenance Coatings 1566.8.6 Standard Application and Performance Tests 156

  • VIII Contents

    6.9 Traffic Marking Paints 1586.9.1 Description of Traffic Paint Market 1586.9.2 Key Performance Features 1596.9.3 Typical Traffic Paint Formulation 1596.9.4 Standard Application and Performance Tests 159

    References 161

    7 Applications for Automotive Coatings 1637.1 Introduction 1637.1.1 History of Automotive Coating 1647.2 Automotive Coating Layers 1667.2.1 Electrocoat 1707.2.2 Primer 1727.2.3 Basecoat 1737.3 Properties of Water-borne Binders used for Automotive Coatings 1767.3.1 Emulsion Polymers 1767.3.2 Microgels 1777.3.3 Miniemulsions 1777.3.4 Selection of Monomers, Initiators, and Surfactants 1787.3.5 Secondary Acrylic Dispersions 1797.3.6 Secondary Polyurethane Dispersions 1797.4 Rheology 1817.5 Crosslinking 1837.6 Application Properties 1857.6.1 Metallic Effect 1867.7 Environmental Aspects and Future Trends 186

    References 187

    8 Applications in the Adhesives and Construction Industries 1918.1 Introduction 1918.2 Pressure-sensitive Adhesives 1938.2.1 Self-adhesive Labels 1948.2.2 Self-adhesive Tapes 2078.2.3 Test Methods 2108.3 Laminating Adhesives 2178.3.1 Flexible Packaging 2178.3.2 Glossy Film Lamination 2198.3.3 Furniture and Automotive 2228.4 Construction Adhesives 2248.4.1 Floor-covering Adhesives 2248.4.2 Sub-floor and Wall Mastics 2318.4.3 Sealants 2338.4.4 Ceramic Tile Adhesives 2388.4.5 Polymer-modified Mortars 2418.4.6 Waterproofing Membranes 244

  • Contents IX

    8.4.7 Elastomeric Roof Coatings 247Acknowledgments 250References 251

    9 Applications in the Carpet Industry 2539.1 Introduction 2539.2 History of Carpet 2539.3 Present Day Carpet Business 2559.4 Carpet Backing Binders 2569.5 Carpet Laminating 2599.5.1 Background 2599.5.2 Carpet Terminology 2609.5.3 Back-coating Applications 2619.5.4 Back-coating Formulations and Ingredients 2629.5.5 Industry Issues 264

    References 266

    10 Non-wovens Application 26710.1 Introduction 26710.2 Manufacturing Systems 27010.2.1 Web Formation 27110.2.2 Web Consolidation 27210.3 Polymer Dispersions for Chemical Bonding 27310.4 Application Test Methods 275

    References 281

    11 Applications in the Leather Industry 28311.1 Introduction 28311.2 Market Situation 28411.3 Leather Finishing 28611.3.1 Modern Finishing 28711.3.2 General Construction of Finishing Coats 28711.3.3 Spray Dyeing 28711.3.4 Grain Impregnation 28711.3.5 Base Coat 28711.3.6 Pigment Coat 28811.3.7 Top Coat 28811.4 Application Methods 28811.4.1 Spraying 28911.4.2 Roll Coating 28911.4.3 Curtain Coater 28911.5 Binders 29111.5.1 Polyacrylate Dispersions 29111.5.2 Polybutadiene Dispersions 29111.5.3 Polyurethane Dispersions 292

  • X Contents

    11.6 Production of Selected Leather Articles 29211.6.1 Shoe Upper Leather 29211.6.2 Apparel Leather 29311.6.3 Automotive Leather 29411.6.4 Furniture Leathers 29511.7 Test Methods in Leather Finishing 29611.7.1 Flexing Endurance 29711.7.2 Rub-fast

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