POST-WWII TO PRESENT DAY THE MIDDLE EAST. Egypt not fully independent – British troops occupied the Suez Canal – As a result, Abdul Nasser seizes power

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  • Egypt not fully independent British troops occupied the Suez CanalAs a result, Abdul Nasser seizes power in a military coup in 1952Once in power, Nasser refused to join the Baghdad Pact, a U.S. led alliance against communism in the Middle EastWhen Nasser asked Western countries to sell him weapons, they refusedGets them from Soviet-controlled CzechoslovakiaThe U.S. and British responded by refusing to loan Egypt money to build the Aswan Dam on the Nile River

  • Angry, Nasser seizes the Suez Canal, which was owned by an international company controlled by Britain and FranceGreat Britain, France, and Israel attack EgyptThe Soviet Union threatens to come to the aid of Egypt and the U.S. pressures Britain, France, and Israel to withdraw from EgyptNasser promotes Pan-Arabism = Arab unityWants to unite the Arab world, works hard to destroy Israel

  • In 1948 the United Nations creates the Jewish state of IsraelThe problem is that Palestinians already live there, Arab neighbors see this as a betrayal, especially EgyptThe UN proposed a partition of Palestine into a Jewish and an Arab stateThe next day several Arab nations invade, however the invasion fails the first Arab-Israeli warThey still refuse to recognize Israels right to existOne result of this war was that the proposed Arab state didnt come into existence

  • Six Day War (1967)Egypt blockades Israel, and fearing an attack, Israel strikes firstIsrael breaks through the blockade and seizes new territorySinai Peninsula, West Bank, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip, and occupies JerusalemIsrael triples its size, some Arab nations still want their land returnedMassacre at the Munich Olympics in 1972Terrorists seize eleven Olympians, two are killed immediatelyThe other nine die with several terrorists in a shoot out at the airport

  • OPEC formed in 1960 = the Organization of Petroleum Exporting CountriesIncrease prices when upset about Western foreign policy in the Middle EastYom Kippur War (1973)Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack against Israel on a Jewish holy dayIn the beginning the Arab force was able to make gainsThe Israelis are able to push back the invading force with U.S. supportArab members of OPEC place an oil embargo on countries supporting Israel

  • Camp David Accords (1978)President Carter meets with Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Prime Minister Begin of IsraelThey sign the Camp David Accords, a peace treaty that ends the state of war between themEgypt recognizes Israel and Israel return the Sinai PeninsulaBoth Sadat and Begin are later assassinatedPalestinian UnrestPLO = Palestine Liberation Organization, formed 1964Pledge to destroy Israel and replace it with a Palestinian stateLed by Yasser Arafat, launches attacks against Israel

  • Intifada = rebellion based on resentment of Israeli occupation (1987)Palestinian youths battle Israeli troops in widespread street violenceFighting continues until the early 1990sOslo Accords (1993) = Arafat and Israeli prime minister Rabin negotiate an agreement to end the violenceCalled for Palestinians to gradually gain control over governing the West Bank and GazaPeace undermined - militant group Hamas launches suicide bombings in Israel and an Israeli religious fanatic assassinates Rabin

  • A second intifada began in 2000, with Hamas sending suicide bombers into Israel and Israel responding by sending troops in the West Bank and GazaRevolution in Iran and hostage crisis (1979)Iran had been the chief ally of the U.S. in the Middle EastHowever many Muslims view the new Iranian civilization as being based on greed and materialism and too western, which they blamed as American influenceAyatollah Khomeini leads a revolution, overthrows the govt, and sets up an Islamic republicEnforced strict religious and social laws, anti-Western foreign policy

  • The shah goes to the U.S. for medical treatment, angers the Iranians52 Americans are then seized in Tehran from the U.S. embassy and held hostage for over a yearThey are released the day Reagan becomes presidentIran-Iraq War (1980-1988)Iran = Shiites, Iran = SunnisSaddam Hussein invades Iran for territoryDue to border disputes and Irans new govt calling for revolution among Iraqs Shiite populationUses poison gas and children to clear minefields

  • Persian Gulf War (1990)Iraq invades Kuwait for its oil fieldsDesert Storm U.S. leads an international force that frees KuwaitIraq must destroy its chemical weaponsCurrent war in IraqU.S. calls for invasion because Iraq is suspected of having chemical weaponsWar starts in March 2003, ends?Saddam Hussein is removed from power and executedCurrently there have been ______ deaths and ______ wounded

  • Afghanistan invaded by the U.S. in 2001 after being accused of sheltering Osama bin Laden and al-QaedaThe Taliban govt collapses, American forces still fighting thereRise of Islamic fundamentalismMovement to reorder govt and society according to Islamic lawsIslamists believe that Muslim countries have strayed from the true path of Islam by following Western influencesIslamic militants/extremists use violence to try and bring about changesGoal is to remove all Western influence in Muslim nations