Postharvest pigmentation in red Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) in response to optimum light and temperature

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  • Postharvest Biology and Technology 91 (2014) 6471

    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    Postharvest Biology and Technology

    journa l h om epa ge : www.elsev ier .com/ l

    Postharvest pigmentation in red Chinese sand peNakai) era

    Yongwan NiuYuanwena Department o owth, University, Hanb College of Ho

    a r t i c l

    Article history:Received 20 AAccepted 23 D

    Keywords:Red Chinese sand pearEuropean pearAnthocyaninColorationTemperatureLight

    eel ofresponce o

    variant and constant) on detached mature fruit of red Chinese sand pear Mantianhong and Meirensu.Fruit of red apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) Royal Gala and red European pear (P. communis L.) Cascadereceived the same treatments for comparison. Furthermore, the effects of light quality and irradiance levelon Mantianhong pears were evaluated at the optimum temperature for anthocyanin accumulation. Fruitrmness and concentrations of total soluble sugars and organic acids were measured to determine fruitquality. The effect of temperature on red Chinese sand pear fruit color was similar to that of apples, but not

    1. Introdu

    Chinese Japan, and tbrown (Tenwith red fruet al., 2004of their attrred peel co(Huang et ais necessaryimprove th

    Fruit colof three clasphylls, whic

    Correspon Correspon

    E-mail add1 These auth

    0925-5214/$ http://dx.doi.oEuropean pear. Moreover, low temperature more effectively induced red coloration in Mantianhong andMeirensu pears than high temperature; anthocyanin levels increased with increasing irradiance levelfrom 0 to 532 mol m2 s1, and UV-B and visible light synergistically improved the red color of the fruit.Therefore, a combination of low temperature and high intensity of UV-B/visible light could improve thepostharvest coloration of red sand pear fruit. The results will contribute to an improved understandingof the mechanism responsible for the coloration of red Chinese sand pears and will aid development ofnew techniques to improve color in postharvest fruit.

    2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    sand pears are widely cultivated in China, Korea andhe fruit color may vary from yellow or green to russet-g and Tanabe, 2004). In recent decades, several cultivarsit have been discovered and developed in China (Tao

    ). These red pears are preferred by consumers becauseactive appearance and nutritional value; however, thelor is not uniform and varies with growing conditionsl., 2009). Given that red pear fruit are highly coveted, it

    to develop postharvest treatments that can be used toe red color of fruit that lack sufcient color.or mainly depends on the concentration and proportionses of pigments: anthocyanins, carotenoids and chloro-h contribute red, yellow and green colors, respectively

    ding author. Tel.: +86 571 88982803; fax: +86 571 88982803.ding author. Tel.: +86 029 87082613; fax: +86 029 87082613.resses: (Y. Teng), (D. Zhang).ors contributed equally to this work.

    (Allan et al., 2008). Anthocyanins belong to the diverse group ofubiquitous secondary metabolites known as avonoids (Holton andCornish, 1995), which are believed to have multiple physiologicalfunctions and provide potential benets to human health, includingprotection against cancer, inammation, coronary heart diseasesand other age-related diseases (Boyer and Liu, 2004; Butelli et al.,2008; Gould et al., 2009).

    Temperature and light are important elements that affect fruitcolor. Several studies have reported the inuence of differenttemperatures (high, low, variant and constant) and light (qualityand quantity) on fruit color. Low temperature (LT) causes higheranthocyanin accumulation in most apple cultivars compared withhigh temperature (HT). Under UV-B/visible light, apple fruit ofthe Iwai, Sansa, Tsugaru, Homei Tsugaru and Akane culti-vars treated with a LT of 17 C develop better red color than thosetreated with a HT of 27 C (Ubi et al., 2006). HT is detrimentalfor color development and reduces anthocyanin accumulation infruit of Mondial Gala and Royal Gala apples (Wang et al., 2011).Compared with HT of 27 C, a LT of 17 C promotes UV-B-inducedanthocyanin accumulation and red coloration in Red Deliciousapples (Xie et al., 2012). Furthermore, different apple cultivars show

    see front matter 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.rg/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2013.12.015in response to optimum light and temp

    g Suna,1, Minjie Qiana,1, Ruiyuan Wua, Qingfeng Tenga,, Dong Zhanga,b,

    f Horticulture, The State Agricultural Ministry Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Grgzhou 310058, Zhejiang Province, China

    rticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China

    e i n f o

    ugust 2013ecember 2013

    a b s t r a c t

    The development of red color in the ptemperature and light; however, the systematically investigated the inueocate /postharvbio

    ars (Pyrus pyrifoliature


    Development & Quality Improvement, Zhejiang

    red Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is inuenced bynse patterns vary among different cultivars. In this study, wef postharvest treatment with various temperatures (low, high,

  • Y. Sun et al. / Postharvest Biology and Technology 91 (2014) 6471 65

    various response patterns to temperature under UV-B/visible light.For example, Jonathan apples treated with HT of 25 C develop amore vivid red color than those treated with LT of 15 C (Arakawa,1991). Under UV-B/visible light, a temperature range of 20/6 C(day/night)the peel of (Marais et aUV-B and lbring aboucyanins canChinese sanaccumulate2009). Studeffective wawhite light effect than red and wh(Arakawa, 1experimentsunlight showith decrea

    Anthocycyanin biosfruit, initialwhich is noripening fru2002). In gbeginning ophase (Bossattain theirbetween an2004a). Unlcyanin biosmaturationat maturityirradiation for 10 dayspean pearstreatment, ipatterns topear Wujiured color thstudy showbetter red cwhich indictemperaturinvestigatedto temperat

    In this stferent tempfruit of the Royal Galaevaluate ansand pears.qualities anoptimum teness and towere determcompared wliable to detions (Reayfruit of appto understaChinese sandesign of ppears.

    2. Materials and methods

    2.1. Plant material and experimental treatments

    ged Manl orcEurohe Zhlturaappl


    fruimberuit oere bted aom foyal


    an002ZTwo land

    werinedubatred per

    1) Mve criant

    witGala17, 2

    vari1 C tto 24examanhont 17s: (1)uorecentmps

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    ent olor huruit wn stoonceganic

    uit m

    it pee colo has a greater effect on anthocyanin accumulation inCripps Pink apples than a constant 6 C LT treatmentl., 2001a). Cool nights followed by warm days, whenight are incident on the fruit peel, are considered tot blush formation in apple fruit (Reay, 1999). Antho-not be detected in the peel of bagged fruit of the redd pears Meirensu and Yunhongli NO. 1, but rapidly

    when the fruit are re-exposed to light (Huang et al.,ies on red apple cultivars show that UV is the mostvelength band for anthocyanin biosynthesis, whereashas almost no effect; UV-B (280320 nm) has a greaterUV-A (320390 nm), and has a synergistic effect withite light on induction of anthocyanin accumulation988a, b; Saure, 1990; Ubi et al., 2006). In a bagging, fruit of Meirensu pear receiving 100%, 80% and 35%wed a graduated decline in anthocyanin accumulationsing exposure to sunlight (Huang et al., 2009).anin accumulation patterns vary among plants. Antho-ynthesis peaks at two developmental stages in applely at the fruitlet stage in both red and non-red cultivars,t of commercial importance, and subsequently at theit stage only in red cultivars (Saure, 1990; Honda et al.,rapes, anthocyanin biosynthesis commences with thef berry ripening and continues throughout the ripening

    et al., 1996). Some cultivars of European pear generally highest anthocyanin concentrations at about midwaythesis and harvest (Dussi et al., 1997; Steyn et al.,ike the pigmentation patterns described above, antho-ynthesis in red Chinese sand pears accompanies fruit

    and the highest anthocyanin concentration is attained. Our previous experiments showed that UV-B/visibleof debagged Mantianhong red Chinese sand pear fruit

    induced good pigmentation; however, Cascade Euro- showed no change in pigmentation with the samendicating that the two cultivars have different response

    light quality (Qian et al., 2013). The fruit of Europeanxiang subjected to a temperature of 4 C showed betteran those subjected to 25 C (Li et al., 2012). Our previoused that, compared with LT of 17 C, HT of 27 C inducedoloration in fruit of Yunhongli No. 1 Chinese sand pear,ated that red Chinese sand pears respond uniquely toe (Zhang et al., 2012). Nevertheless, few studies have

    the fruit color of red Chinese sand pears in responseure and light.udy, we systematically investigated the inuence of dif-eratures (low, high, variable and constant) on detachedred Chinese sand pears Mantianhong and Meirensu. apples and Cascade pears were treated in parallel tod compare their pigmentation responses to those of the

    In addition, we investigated the effect of different lightd irradiance levels on Mantianhong pears at 17 C, itsmperature for anthocyanin accumulation. Fruit rm-tal concentrations of soluble sugars and organic acidsined as measures of fruit quality. It is reported that,ith immature fruit, mature apple and pear fruit are

    velop red coloration under the same treatment condi- and Lanc