Pre-IB English 9 Semester 1 Exam Study Guide

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A basic overview of the information we should know for the exam.


Mrs Hamley - Basic Study Sheet for Semester 1 Exam

LITERATURE General Literary Terms Alliteration - repetition of consonant or vowel sounds Allusion - a brief reference to an outside work Apostrophe - when someone is addressed as if they are present (invocation) Assonance - repetition of vowel sounds Audience - the target population addressed Hyperbole - extreme exaggeration Imagery - language that appeals to the senses Irony - where a person says one thing and means another Metaphor - a direct comparison without using like or as Motif - a reccuring image, word, object, or phrase used to unify a literary work Personnication - adding human-like aspects to an object or animal Simile - comparison using like or as Setting - where the events occur Speaker - the voice of a work Symbol - something concrete that stands for something rather abstract Theme - the general, overlying message being conveyed to the reader Tone - the voice used in order to relate to the readers Archetypes Hero - the main character Mentor - teaches the hero Threshold Guardian - the rst obstacle for the hero Herald - the messenger Shapeshifter - usually aids the shadow but not evil Shadow - the villain Loyal Retainer - the Hero's friends Mythology : General Information The study of mythology helps us to understand different cultures

The purposes of myths entertainment serious purposes explain the nature of the universe instruct members of the community proper behavior

The universal belief that all life stems from the mother creates a matriarchial society agriculture cyclical view of life mother goddess - underworld, earth, sky

This society was taken over by aggressive war tribes and made to be patriarchial Creation Myths Popol Vuh - The Creation - Mayan Creators make the world, then humans out of clay (failure), wood (failure), then corn. Olorun goes on a quest and creates humans. God creates the earth in 7 days and then humans sin and ruin it God sends a ood to punish humanity, saves Noah, creates a pact with them never to destroy the earth again (rainbow). There is a never ending cycle consisting of a maha yuga, which is four ages These ages are Krita yuga, Treta yuga, Dvapara yuga, and Kali yuga Then the world is destroyed and it starts over

The Creation of the Universe and Ife - African Genesis - In The Beginning Noah and the Flood

The Creation, Death, and Rebirth of the Universe

Greek Creation Myths When Gods Walked the Earth Zeus oods the Earth and Deucalion and Pyrrha survive to repopulate earth Promethius Prometheus creates all the humans and gives them re

Zeus punishes Promethius by sticking him on a rock where a bird can pick his liver 1st Generation - Race of Gold 2nd Generation - Race of Silver 3rd Generation - Race of Bronze 4th Generation - Race of Heroes 5th Generation - Race of Iron Hades steals Persephone, Demeter threatens to starve the humans, Persephone eats fruit

The Age of Man

Demeter and Persephone

Greek and Roman Gods/Goddesses Zeus/Jupiter - the god of the sky Poseidon/Neptune - the god of the water Hades/Pluto - the god of the underworld Hera/Juno - the goddess of marriage Hestia/Vesta - the goddess of the home and hearth Ares/Mars - the god of war Athena/Minerva - the goddess of the city, wisdom, handicrafts, strategy and agriculture Hermes/Mercury - the god of travelers, thieves, business, messages and sheperds Apollo - the god of light, music, art and purity Artemis/Diana - the goddess of the hunt and moon Hephaestus/Vulcan - the god of re and forge Aphrodite/Venus - the goddess of love and beauty Greek Heroes Daedalus and Icarus Daedalus invents the wheel, plow, and loom Gets jealous of his nephew Talos and pushes him off King Minos imprisons him and he ies away with his son but the son falls and dies


Goes to Athens and then to Crete as a "slave", he ghts the minotaur and wins, comes back home, his dad commits suicide King Acrisius gets rid of his daughter and his granson He grows up, gets the head of Medusa, comes and kills his mothers suitors Kills King Acrisius unknowingly 12 Labors The Skin of the Lion of Medea The Hydra of Lerna - DID NOT COUNT The Deer with Golden Horns The Erymanthian Boar The Cleaning of the Stables - DID NOT COUNT The Stymphalians Birds The Almost Sacriced Bull The Man-Eating Mares of King Diomedes The Belt of Hippolite The Red Cattle The Golden Apples Cerberus



The Illiad Paris - the guy who gave the golden apple to Aphrodite and recieved Helen in return Menelaus - the guy who already was married to Helen Helen - the most beautiful woman in the world Achilles - the invincible guy with his only weakness in his heel Thetis - an immortal, the mother of Achilles Calchas - a prophet that predicted that Agaememnon should sacrice his daughter, Iphigenia, in order to be successful in the Trojan war Agaememnon - the King of Greece Nestor - King of Pylos Hector - Paris's brother

Patroclus - Achilles's friend Odysseus - Hero of the Trojan War Analyze a Passage from the Illiad Homeric Simile - extended metaphor Homeric Epithet - short, added description of the character The Odyssey Cicones - Ismarus Cyclops (Polyphemus) - Sicily Aeolus - Aeolia Laestrygonians - Telepylus Circe - Aeaea Teriesias - The Land of the Dead Sirens Charybodis and Scylla Helios - Thinakia Calypso - Ogygia Alcinous - Phaecia

GRAMMAR Punctuation Colon : To introduce a list, not used in one that follows a verb or preposition Mostly used after this, these, the following, and as follows Separates main clauses without conjunctions OR if they are joined by a conjunctive adverb Sets off nonessential phrases or clauses Separates two clauses

Semi Colon ;

Comma ,

Dash Indicates an abrupt change in thought within a sentence

Parentheses ( ) Sets off supplemental information Add after any prex, spelled out number, or fraction expressed in words Hyphen - Subject-Verb Agreement A verb must agree with its subject in person and in number: Subject is NEVER in a prepositional phrase In sentences with a linking verb, the verb agrees with the subject, not pred nom In interrogative sentences, the subject is inbetween the helping and main verb Singular when referring to the group as a whole Plural when referring to the individual members of the group

Collective nouns

Titles are always singular Compound subjects And, both...and - plural verb or, nor, either...or, neither...nor - agrees with the closer subject Always singular: each, either, neither, one, everyone, everybody, everything, no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something Always plural: several, few, both, many Can be both: some, all, most, none

Indenite pronouns

Pronoun Usage

Case Nominative Objective Possesive

SingularI, you, she, he, it me, you, her, him, it

Pluralwe, you, they us, you, them

Functionsubject predicate nominative direct object indirect object object of preposition replacement for possesive nouns

my, mine your, yours her, hers, his, its

our, ours your, yours their, theirs

Pronouns with and as Appositive; After Than and As Use the nominative case for a pronoun that is in apposition to a subject The team captains, Maria and I, will schedule practice.

Use the objective case for a pronoun that is in apposition to a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition The judge sentenced the offenders, the thief and him.

When a pronoun is followed by an appositive, choose the case of the pronoun that would be correct if the appositive were omitted We climbers will beat you to the top of the mountain.

In elliptical adverb clauses using than and as, choose the case of the pronoun that you would use if the missing words were fully expressed Your words hurt her as much as me. (Your words hurt her as much as they hurt me)

Who and Whom Questions Who - subjects Whom - direcct objects and objects of the preposition

Use the nominative pronouns who and whoever for subjects and predicate nominatives The driver knows who hit him.

Use the objective pronouns whom and whoever for direct and indirect objects and objects of a preposition I asked whom she had chosen as a lab partner.

Agreement in Number and Gender A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number (singular or plural) and gender (masculine, feminine, or neuter) A pronoun must agree in person with its antecedent

Agreement in Person

COMPOSITION CSI of Writing Claim - the main point

Support - the reasons given in support of the claim Insight - the assumptions or presuppositions underlying the argument The Five Catergories of Claims Claims of Fact - is it real? does it exist? Claims of Denition - what is it? how should it be classied? Claims of Cause - how did this happen? Claims of Value - is it good or bad? Claims of Policy - what should we do?


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