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Preparatory Hand Motion in Pre-performance Routines By Justin DiSanti

Preparatory Hand Motion in Pre-performance Routines

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Preparatory Hand Motion in Pre-performance Routines. By Justin DiSanti. Pre-performance Routines. Slow-motion Dart Throw. Pre-performance Routines. “Cognitive behavioral pre-performance routines in sport” (Cohn, 1990) Prior to practiced, repeated action Muscle memory Gross body movement - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Preparatory Hand Motion in Pre-performance Routines

Preparatory Hand Motion in Pre-performance RoutinesBy Justin DiSanti

Pre-performance Routines

Slow-motion Dart ThrowPre-performance Routines

Cognitive behavioral pre-performance routines in sport (Cohn, 1990)Prior to practiced, repeated actionMuscle memoryGross body movementSuperstition Conscious, practicePreparatory Hand MotionUnconscious motion of the hand in preparation of a fixed action Action involving precision and aim Focus on unconscious, unpracticedHypothesis Optimal patterns of preparatory hand motion begin to develop unconsciously as a person becomes more proficient at a repeated taskHypotheses

Hypothesis: Variance of hand preparation motion (HPM) is directly related to the width of the target zoneAlternative hypothesis: Variance of HPM is inversely related to the width of the target zone H0: There is no relation between variance of HPM and the width of target zoneVariance in HPM VS. Width of Target ZoneWidth of Target Zone (cm)Variance of HPM (cm)Hypotheses (cont.)

Hypothesis: Number of movements in hand preparation motion (HPM) is related inversely to the width of the target zoneAlternative hypothesis: Number of movements in HPM is directly related to the width of the target zone H0: There is no relation between number of movements in HPM and the width of the target zone Number of Movements in HPM VS. Width of Target ZoneWidth of Target Zone (cm)Number of Movements in HPM Hypotheses (cont.)

Hypothesis: Probability of success in a fixed action is predicted by optimal variance in hand preparation motionAlternative hypotheses: Probability of success in a fixed action is directly/inversely proportional to variance in hand preparation motionH0: There is no relation between probability of success in a fixed action and variance in hand preparation motionProbability of Success VS. Variance of HPMProbability of Task SuccessVariance of HPM (cm)Experiment 1

Motion SensorTable SurfaceBooksStopperXTarget 2Target 1Subject ViewStarting Point16 ptsCue CardPASCO low-friction track10Experiment 1

SetupOverhead ViewXStarting PointTarget 1Target 2Experiment 1

MethodParticipant stands parallel to track with hand on the middle of the cartThe X on the cart should be lined up with the starting zoneParticipant begins with their eyes closedThe experimenter adjusts the target zone and corresponding point valueParticipant opens eyes, evaluates point value and target distance, then launches the cartThe goal of the experiment is to launch the cart and have it reverse within the target zoneWhen center of the cart (marked by X) reverses correctly within the target distance, the participant is rewarded points (20 trials) 16 pts.XResults (Pilot)

Results

Run 3Blue line, missed target zone of 20 cm-Variance of HPM smaller, more preparatory motions, longer time until launch

Run 4Orange line, correctly reversed target zone of 40 cm-Variance of HPM larger than 4, less preparatory motionsPredictions & Implications

Intentional or not, participants become more consistent with preparatory motion as the experiment progressesLess frequent, longer range of motion for larger targetsMore frequent, shorter range of motion for shorter targetsIs there an optimal formula for preparatory hand motion?Is motion wasted/unnecessary? How do individual differences affect this motion? Can preparatory hand motion be trained to maximize performance?