Prison statistics in India 2012

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Prison statistics in India 2012


<ul><li><p>PPRRIISSOONN SSTTAATTIISSTTIICCSS IINNDDIIAA </p><p>22001122 </p><p> : 011-26177378, 26172324, 26105353, 26177442 Fax : 011-26177378, 26197984 </p><p> E-Mail : / </p><p> Web Site : </p><p>National Crime Records Bureau Ministry of Home Affairs </p><p>Government of India East Block - 7, R.K. Puram </p><p>New Delhi - 110 066</p></li><li><p>Foreword </p><p>During the ancient times, Prisons were considered as a House of Captives where the prisoners were held for deterrent and retributory punishment. Determined and sustained efforts of the thinkers and human right activists in this field led to progressive transformation of the concept of deterrence and retribution into reformation and rehabilitation. Therefore, under the modern correctional philosophy prisons are now considered as correctional institutions where the prisoners are sent after punishment for their reformation and rehabilitation. </p><p>Prisons have now been considered as a community, reflecting the multifaceted socio-cultural, socio-economic and socio-political scenario of the society as a whole. Prisoners of all sections of society are confined in prisons and conscious efforts are being made to provide such conditions to the prisoners in prisons as are conducive to their physical as well as mental treatment and care, and to maintain their human dignity, as also visualized by our father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi had visualized crime and prisons in therapeutical context and observed that Crime is the outcome of a disease mind and jail must have an environment of hospital for their treatment and care. This principle has become a State Policy in India and efforts have all along been made to protect all basic rights of prisoners to maintain their human dignity during the period of their incarceration. </p><p>In view of this, the main objective of the prison administration is to make prison a safe place by maintaining the required level of security and discipline and to make the best use of prison stay period for reformation and rehabilitation of prisoners by providing them basic minimum facilities in consistent with their human dignity. In India, prison is State subject. Thus, States have the primary role, responsibility and authority w. r. t. prison laws, rules and regulations. Moreover, the judiciary and union executive keep constant and close scrutiny over prison management since long with a view to make it more transparent and humane. </p></li><li><p>The National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs, has been compiling and disseminating comprehensive compendium of statistical information related to various aspects of prison inmates and prison administration since 1995. The present publication," Prison Statistics India 2012", is the eighteenth in the series of annual publication. This publication contains twelve chapters which covers different aspects like Prison institutions, Inmate population and overcrowding in prisons, Type of prison inmates, Distribution of convicts and undertrials under IPC and SLL crimes, Demographic particulars of inmates, Period of detention of undertrials, Period of sentences, Vocational training, Jail inspections and visits, Strength and Training of jail officials and Prison budget and expenditure along with graphs, tables and maps.. However, brief contents of the report are summarised in Snapshots. It is hoped that this report would meet the requirements of the legislators, Central &amp; State/UT Governments, policy makers, prison administrators, researchers, criminologists, media and other stakeholders. </p><p>I express my gratitude to the Directors General/ Inspectors General of Prisons of States/UTs for sending validated data timely. The timely of publication of this annual report is of paramount importance in preserving the relevance and utility of the information that this report provides. Hence, I request the Directors General/ Inspectors General of Prisons of all States/UTs to take personal interest in the matter so that the complete data reaches us expeditiously by the end of April every year. In the context of capacity-building, needs of the Prison departments of the States/UTs, NCRB, like previous years, will conduct training programmes to impart the requisite knowledge and skills to the personnel dealing with data compilation at the State/UT level this year also. </p><p>I also take this opportunity to record my appreciation of the sustained hard work put in by the officers and staff of the Statistical Branch of the Bureau in coordinating with the Prison Departments of the States/UTs and bringing out this report. </p><p>It is our continuous endeavour to enrich the content and presentation of this report. I request the readers to be our partners in our enterprise by sending their suggestions and inputs in the feedback form attached at the end of this report. </p><p>(Shafi Alam) New Delhi 30th August, 2013 </p></li><li><p> GLOSSARY </p><p> Borstal school </p><p> The primary objective of borstal school is to ensure care, welfare and rehabilitation of young offenders and to keep them away from contaminating atmosphere of the prison. The emphasis is given on the education, training and moral influence conducive for their reformation and prevention of crime. Convict </p><p> Means any prisoner undergoing sentence. </p><p>Detenue </p><p> Any person detained in prison on the orders of competent authority under the relevant preventive detention law. Occupancy rate </p><p> The number of inmates accommodated in jail against the authorized capacity of 100 inmates. Overcrowding </p><p> The occupancy rate of more than 100 percent results in overcrowding in the jail. Prison population </p><p> Number of prisoners kept in prison at any given point of time. The prison population keeps changing because of addition of new prisoners and release of the old ones. Undertrial prisoner </p><p> Means a person kept in prison (judicial custody) while the charges against him are being tried. Women jail </p><p> The jails functioning exclusively for women prisoners. </p></li><li><p>D I S C L A I M E R </p><p> The information published in this report has been </p><p>obtained from State/UT Prison Headquarters. All </p><p>precautions have been taken to ensure that the data is </p><p>statistically consistent. NCRB has only compiled and </p><p>collated the data and presented it in the form of this </p><p>report. NCRB shall not be responsible for authenticity of </p><p>this information. However, any discrepancy observed in </p><p>this report may be brought to the notice of the Bureau. </p><p> Information on Budget and Expenditure pertains to the </p><p>financial year 2012-2013 while rest of the information </p><p>pertains to the calendar year 2012. </p><p> The crime head Molestation has been changed as </p><p>Assault on women with intent to outrage her modesty. </p><p> The crime head Eve-teasing has been changed as </p><p>Insult to the modesty of women. </p></li><li><p> PRISON STATISTICS : PUBLICATION OVER THE YEARS </p><p>YEAR PUBLISHED IN </p><p>MONTH YEAR </p><p>1995 JUNE 1998 </p><p>1996 MAY 1999 </p><p>1997 JANUARY 2000 </p><p>1998 DECEMBER 2000 </p><p>1999 AUGUST 2001 </p><p>2000 APRIL 2002 </p><p>2001 MARCH 2004 </p><p>2002 JULY 2004 </p><p>2003 SEPTEMBER 2005 </p><p>2004 NOVEMBER 2006 </p><p>2005 JUNE 2007 </p><p>2006 MAY 2008 </p><p>2007 JULY 2009 </p><p>2008 OCTOBER 2010 </p><p>2009 JULY 2011 </p><p>2010 JANUARY 2012 </p><p>2011 SEPTEMBER 2012 </p><p>2012 SEPTEMBER 2013 </p></li><li><p> OFFICERS &amp; OFFICIALS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PUBLICATION </p><p>Guidance </p><p>Shri Shafi Alam, IPS Director General </p><p>Supervision </p><p>Shri Nasir Kamal, IPS Joint Director </p><p>Shri P.R.K. Naidu, IPS Joint Director </p><p>Editorial Board </p><p>Shri R. Rajasekaran, IPS Deputy Director </p><p>Shri Akhilesh Kumar, ISS Chief Statistical Officer </p><p>Shri R.B. Singh, ISS Statistical Officer </p><p>Technical Personnel Maps &amp; Graphics </p><p>Shri C. Sivakumar, DPA-A </p><p>Shri Ashok Kumar, DEO-B </p><p>Shri C. Sivakumar, DPA-A </p><p>Shri Ashok Kumar, DEO-B </p><p>Support &amp; Assistance Cover Page </p><p>Shri M. Rajakumar, JSO </p><p>Smt. Surekha Soni, DPA-B &amp; S.I. </p><p>Shri K.P. Uday Shankar, DPA-B </p><p>Ms. Jyothi, Statistical Investigator </p><p>Shri M. Suresh Kumar, DEO-D </p><p>Shri Suresh Bohra, DPA-B </p></li><li><p> Prison Statistics India-2012 i </p><p>Snapshots - 2012 </p><p> Total number of jails in the country : 1,394 Central jails </p><p>District jails </p><p>Sub jails </p><p>Women jails </p><p>: </p><p>: </p><p>: </p><p>: </p><p>127 </p><p>340 </p><p>806 </p><p>20 </p><p>Open jails </p><p>Borstal schools </p><p>Special jails </p><p>Other jails </p><p>: </p><p>: </p><p>: </p><p>: </p><p>46 </p><p>21 </p><p>31 </p><p>3 </p><p> Total capacity of jails in the country : 3,43,169 Central jails : 1,46,648 (42.7%) </p><p>District jails : 1,26,110 (36.7%) </p><p>Sub jails : 48,474 (14.1%) </p><p>Women jails : 4,817 ( 1.4%) </p><p>Open jails : 4,028 (1.2%) </p><p>Borstal schools : 2,438 (0.7%) </p><p>Special jails : 10,331 (3.0%) </p><p>Other jails : 323 (0.1%) </p><p> Total number of jail inmates as on 31.12.2013 : 3,85,135 Male : 3,68,184 (95.6%) Female : 16,951 (4.4%) </p><p> Occupancy rate 2010 115.1% 2011 112.1% 2012 112.2% </p><p>Convicts : 1,27,789 (33.2% of total inmates) </p><p>Male : 1,22,776 (96.1% of total convicts) </p><p>Female : 5,013 (3.9% of total convicts) </p><p>Undertrials: 2,54,857 (66.2% of total inmates) </p><p>Male : 2,43,055 (95.4% of total undertrials) </p><p>Female : 11,802 (4.6% of total undertrials) </p><p>Detenues : 1,922 (0.5% of total inmates) Male : 1,832 (95.3% of total detenues) </p><p>Female : 90 (4.7% of total detenues) </p><p>Others : 567 (0.1% of total inmates) Male : 521 (91.9% of total others) </p><p>Female : 46 (8.1% of total others) </p><p>Foreigners </p><p>Convicts : 2,483 Undertrials : 3,984 Detenues : 95 </p><p>(Male : 2,345, Female : 138) (Male : 3,486, Female : 498) (Male : 95, Female : 0) </p><p> No Borstal school, Open jail and Other jail existed in any of the UTs at the end of 2012. </p><p> The highest number of 80,311 inmates (77,148 male : 3,163 female) were reported from Uttar Pradesh (20.9%) followed by Madhya Pradesh 33,959 (32,778 male : 1,181 female), Bihar 28,550 </p><p>(27,622 male : 928 female), Maharashtra 24,509 (23,171 male : 1,338 female) and Punjab 23,219 </p><p>(21,944 male : 1,275 female) at the end of the year 2012. </p><p> Chhattisgarh reported the highest overcrowding in prisons (252.6%) followed by Delhi (193.8%). </p><p> A total of 344 women convicts with their 382 children and 1,226 women undertrials with their 1,397 children were lodged in various prisons in the country at the end of 2012. </p><p> A total of 4,470 inmates having mental illness out of 3,38,135 inmates, accounting for 1.2% of total inmates, were lodged in various jails during 2012. </p><p> Maximum number of 26,250 (25,406 male : 844 female) convicts were reported from Uttar Pradesh (20.5% of total convicts in the Country) followed by Madhya Pradesh 16,125 (15,631 </p><p>male : 494 female) accounting for 12.6% of the total convicts in the country at the end of the year </p><p>2012. </p><p> Murder alone accounted for 59.0% (64,949 out of 1,10,001) of the total convicts under IPC Crimes. The highest percentage of murder convicts was reported from Uttar Pradesh (17.6%) followed by </p><p>Madhya Pradesh (16.0%) of the total murder convicts at the end of the year 2012. </p></li><li><p> Prison Statistics India-2012 ii </p><p> 23.2% (1,624 out of 7,009) of conviction related to rape cases were reported from Uttar Pradesh. </p><p> The highest percentage (26.9%) (54,715 out of 2,02,762) of undertrials were charged with murder. Uttar Pradesh has reported 15.7% of such undertrials (8,595 out of 54,715) followed by Madhya </p><p>Pradesh 4,746 (8.7%). </p><p>Period of detention </p><p> Maximum number of undertrials (37.7%) was detained for up to 3 months during 2012. </p><p> A total of 2,028 undertrials (0.8% of total undertrials) were detained in jails for more than 5 years at the end of the year 2012. Uttar Pradesh had the highest number of such undertrials (324) </p><p>followed by Punjab (317). </p><p> A total of 414 convicts including 13 females lodged in different jails of the country were serving capital punishment at the end of the year 2012. </p><p> A total of 69,133 convicts including 2,787 women accounting for 54.1% of total convicts in the country were undergoing sentences for life imprisonment at the end of the year 2012. </p><p> A total of 97 prisoners were awarded capital punishment and capital punishment of 61 inmates was commuted to life imprisonment during 2012. </p><p> One inmate was executed in the country (in Maharashtra) during the year 2012. </p><p> A total of 14,34,874 undertrials were released, out of which 76,083 undertrails were acquitted, 2,842 undertrials were transferred to other States during the year 2012. </p><p> A total of 2,20,542 convicts were released during the year 2012. </p><p> A total of 12,135 convicts were habitual offenders/recidivists which accounted for 5.5% of total convicts admitted during the year. </p><p>Demographic particulars of inmates </p><p> Out of 1,27,789 convicted inmates 1,16,861 belong to the same State, 8,445 inmates belong to other States and 2,483 inmates belong to other countries. </p><p> Out of 1,27,789 convicted inmates, majority of inmates are either illiterate (37,255) or educated upto class X (58,014). </p><p> The highest number of graduate (1,218) and post graduate (398) convicts were reported from Uttar Pradesh at the end of the year 2012. </p><p> Out of 2,54,857 undertrials inmate, 76,626 were illiterates, 1,10,385 were educated upto Class X, 49,871 having education of above Class X &amp; below graduation, 12,459 were graduates and 3,471 </p><p>were post graduates. </p><p>Deaths in jails </p><p> A total of 1,471 deaths were reported (1,345 natural and 126 un-natural) during the year 2012. </p><p> A total of 55 deaths of female inmates were reported during 2012, wherein 8 deaths were suicidal in nature reported during the year 2012. </p></li><li><p> Prison Statistics India-2012 iii </p><p>Number of convicts and undertrial prisoners in different age-groups </p><p> During the year 2012, 43,622 (34.1%) convicted prisoners were in the age group of 18 - 30 years, 62,135 (48.6%) convicts were in the age-group of 30 - 50 years and 22,032 (17.2%) convicts were </p><p>50 years or more. No convicted prisoner in the age group of 16-18 years was lodged in any jails of </p><p>the country. </p><p> During the year 2012, 91 undertrial prisoners were in the age group of 16-18 years, 1,17,984 (46.3%) in the age group of 18 - 30 years, 1,06,191 (41.7%) undertrials were in the age-group of 30 </p><p>- 50 years and 30,591 (12.0%) undertrials were 50 years or more. </p><p> Only 10 States/UTs have reported the lodging of civil prisoners. A total of 95 convicted and 29 under-trial civil prisoners were reported during the year 2012. </p><p>Rate of change in number of convicts </p><p> The number of convicted prisoners have decreased marginally by 0.6% in 2012 (1,27,789) over 2011 (1,28,592). </p><p> Number of persons convicted under murder charges decreased by 2.3% in 2011 over 2010 and percentage change in 2012 (64949 convicts) was insignificant as compared to 2011 (64954 </p><p>convicts). </p><p> Number of persons convicted under attempt to murder increased sharply by 23.2% in 2011 and decreased sharply by 17.7% in 2012 over respective previous year. </p><p> Number of persons convicted under rape charges increased by 2.6% in 2011 and marginally decreased by 0.3% in 2012 over respective previous year. </p><p>Training </p><p> A total of 52,228 out of 3,85,135 inmates were trained under various vocational training in various jails during the year 2012. </p><p> L...</p></li></ul>