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BASIC PLC COURSE Objectives:  To be able to define PLC and its functions.  To understand the advantages of PLC.  To be able to know PLC Hardware Components  To be able to develop PLC Ladder Diagram.  T o learn proper wiring of inputs and outputs to the PLC.

Programmable Logic Controllers Presentation Edited

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    BASIC PLC COURSE

    Objectives:

    To be able to define PLC and its functions.

    To understand the advantages of PLC.

    To be able to know PLC Hardware Components

    To be able to develop PLC Ladder Diagram.

    To learn proper wiring of inputs and outputs

    to the PLC.

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    Programmable Logic Controllers

    Defined by NEMA as a digital electronic

    apparatus with a programmable memory for

    storing instructions to implement specific

    functions (logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and

    arithmetic) to control machines and processes.

    Considered as the first industrial-based computer

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    Functions of PLC

    Sequence Control

    Conventional Relay Logic Replacer

    Timer and Counter Functions

    Auto / Semi / Manual Control of

    Machines and Processes

    SophisticatedControl

    Arithmetic Operations

    Analog Control (Temperature,

    Pressure, etc.)

    PID (Proportional Integral

    Derivation)

    Stepper / Servo Motor Control

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    Functions of PLC

    Supervisory Control

    Process Monitoring and Alarm

    Interfacing with Computers

    Factory Automation network

    Wide Area Network

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    Basic Control System

    Open Loop System

    INPUT LOGIC OUTPUT

    -Pushbuttons

    -Limit Switches

    -Level Switches-Flow Switches

    -Relays

    -Timers

    -Counters

    -Motors

    -Solenoid

    valves

    -Lamps

    PLC

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    Basic Control System

    Closed Loop System

    ControllerFinal Control

    Element

    Process

    Transmitter

    Set value

    Error

    ProcessVariable Primary

    Element / Transducer

    Temperature

    Flow

    Level

    Pressure

    +

    _

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    Hardware Components

    Central Processing Unit (CPU)

    Micro PLCless than 100 I/Os

    Small PLC0 to 526 I/Os

    Medium PLC0 to 1028 I/Os

    Large PLC 0 to 5120 I/Os

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    Power Supply

    100240 Volts AC

    100 / 110 Volts AC

    200 / 220 Volts AC

    24 Volts DC

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    Inputs

    DC24 Volts

    AC110 / 220 Volts

    DC12 Volts

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    Outputs

    Transistor type (24 Vdc )

    Relay / Contact type (24Vdc / 220 Vac)

    TRIAC type (110 / 220 Vac)

    PNP-type Transistor

    Input

    Source

    Generates power

    NPN-type Transistor

    Input

    Sink

    Transmits power

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    Peripheral Devices

    Programming Console

    CX-Programmer Software

    Conversion Cables

    Connecting Cables

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    Software Components

    1. Ladder Diagram Languagea symbolic instruction type

    language

    2. Boolean Language- Basic level language that composed

    of three (3) Boolean logic operation: AND, OR, NOT

    Mnemonic Instructionwritten in abbreviated

    form using 3 or 4 letters that generally imply

    the operation of the instruction

    3. Functional Blocks Languagehigh level instructions that

    permit the user to program more complex functions

    using the ladder diagram format

    - Instruction set is composed of blocks that executes

    or performs specific function

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    4. English Statement Languageconsidered derivative of

    computer language such as BASIC.

    -also known as Control Statements

    Note:

    OMRON PLCs uses both Ladder Diagram

    Language and Boolean Language.

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    Key Points to Know in Selecting or Using PLC

    I. Know the process to be controlled

    II. Determine the type of control

    Distributed control

    Centralized control

    Individual machine control

    III. Determine I/O interface requirements

    Estimate digital and analog I./Os

    Check for I/O specifications

    Determine if remote I/O is required

    Allow for future expansion

    IV. Define peripheral devices

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    5 Steps in PLC Implementation

    Draw the Schematic Diagram

    Draw Control Diagram

    Develop PLC Ladder Diagram

    I/O Assignment

    PLC Layout

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    STEP I. SCHEMATIC OR POWER DIAGRAM

    Exercise 1 FORWARD/ REVERSE SCHEMATIC DIGRAM OF 3-PHASE MOTOR

    M

    L1 L2 L3

    FWD REV

    CB

    O.L.

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    EXERCISE 2 ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER

    DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER

    4/2 WAY DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE.

    DOUBLE SOLENOID VALVE

    STEP I. SCHEMATIC OR POWER DIAGRAM

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    STEP II. CONTROL DIAGRAM (RELAY DIAGRAM) OF EXERCISE 1

    PB FORWARD

    PB STOP

    REV

    FWD

    FWD

    REV

    FWD

    REV

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    10

    01

    1002

    STEP IV. PLC DIGRAM

    0.01 0.3 10.02

    10.011001

    10.02

    0.30.02

    STEP III. INPUT/OUTPUT ASSIGNMENT OF

    EXERCISE 1

    PB FWD0.01 FWD-10.01

    PB REV - 0.02 REV-10.02

    PB STOP- 0.03

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    STEP V. PLC LAY-OUT

    CENTRAL

    PROCESSING UNIT

    12

    3

    FWD

    REV

    L1 L2

    INPUT MODULE OUTPUT MODULE

    COM

    + 24V -

    PB_F

    PB_R

    Stop PB

    CH0 CH10

    0

    1

    COM

    220VAC

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    PLC I/O WIRING(INPUT WIRING)

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    PLC I/O WIRING(OUTPUT WIRING)

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    CX PROGRAMMER

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    CX PROGRAMMER

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    CX PROGRAMMER

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    TIMER

    PLC ADDRESS T0- T127

    COIL : TIM_TIM#_SET VALUE

    CONTACT: T#

    coil

    acontact point

    bcontact point

    delay period

    TIM

    001

    #50

    CONTACT

    Timer No.

    Set Value

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    COUNTER

    In the control circuits, besides detection of objects and response operation or

    timing control, there is a function which is called counter. For example counters

    are often used in counting material numbers being carried by conveyor, or making

    operation stop after a certain period is counted.

    PLC ADDRESS C0- C127

    Coil : CNT_CNT#_SET VALUE

    Contact : C#

    CNT

    001

    #3

    PULSER

    RESET

    Counter No.

    Set Value

    Lamp

    Pulser

    Reset

    pulse

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    FORCING OF STATUS

    Forcing is used for testing. To temporarily Turn ON the status of a certaininput, output or internal relay.

    Note: PLC must be in monitor mode

    To change operating mode:

    PLC => Operating Mode => Monitor Mode

    To begin forcing

    PLC => Force => ON

    To begin forcing

    PLC => Force => OFF

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    Problem I.

    Packages arriving on a roller-conveyor are lifted by a pneumatic cylinder and pushed onto

    another conveyor by a second cylinder. Cylinder Bmay then perform a return stroke only after

    cylinder A has reached the car position. The start signal should be provided by means of a manual

    button, each signal initiating one cycle.

    Positional sketch and determination of working elements:

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    Problems and Exercises

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    Displacement Step Diagram

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    Problem II.

    Two clips are to be riveted together on a semi-automatic press.

    Components and rivet are positioned by hand and then removed by hand on completion of the

    riveting operation. The automated part of the working cycle consist of the holding and clamping of the components

    (cylinder A) and also the riveting (cylinder B), and the cycle should be performed ending at the starting position

    after operating a start button.

    Positional sketch and determination of working elements:

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    Displacement Step Diagram

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    Problem III.

    Provide switches to operate this valve. Provide interlock so that only one can open at a time (It is undesirable to mix

    the chemicals of several tanks.)

    Note: Switches which drive active high valves must be driven with active low.

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    Problem IV.

    REMOTE MONITORING OF 3 MOTORS

    Design a control circuit that will start the three motors one at a time. Motor 1 should start first. After 10s Motor 2

    will start and after another 10s, motor 3 will start. Provide a stop button to stop the operation at any time.

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    Problem V.

    Flints are contained in a hopper and they are to be distributed to two only assembly

    stations in a certain rhythm. Cylinder 1.0 (A) opens and closes the hopper seal. When the start

    switch is operated, cylinder 1.0 (A) opens the seal. The flints slide into receptacle 1. When the

    hopper has been closed, cylinder 2.0 (B) moves receptacle 2 under the hopper. In the meantime,receptacle 1 has arrived on the conveyor at the first assembly station. Another empty receptacle is

    located on the sliding table when cylinder 1.0 (A) has closed the hopper. Cylinder 2.0 (B) moves

    into its initial position and receptacle 2 is transported to the second assemble station on a

    conveyor. If the start switch is operated again, the control performs a new cycle.

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    Displacement Step Diagram

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    LADDER DIAGRAM DESIGNING

    Condition: Level MonitoringThree float switch will be used to detect the level of the tank.Float switch 1 for Low Level, Float Switch 2 for Medium Level,and Float Switch 3 for High Level. Output lamps will give signalto the Operator upon actuation of the float switch. One lamp

    will indicate when there is no signal given by the float switchyet.

    Design the circuit.