Project on Water Potability by Anup Kumar Ojha

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<p>PROJECT ON</p> <p>r</p> <p>SOURCES AT SODEPUR, KOLKATAThe Degree of Bachelor of Science in Applied BiotechnologyUnder</p> <p>The Sikkim Manipal University of Health, Medical &amp; Technological SciencesProject is submitted by</p> <p>Name: ANUP KUMAR OJHA Registration Number:05 Semester: BSc. BT-6thStudy Centre</p> <p>ABC FOUNDATIONStudy Center Code 1831 BB 36, Sector 1, Salt Lake City Kolkata 700064 West Bengal 1</p> <p>This is to certify that this project is done under my guidance by Anup Kumar Ojha, a student of Sikkim Manipal University of Health, Medical and Technological Science, Roll No. 05 Bachelor of Science in Applied Biotechnology.</p> <p>The Project Report has not been submitted for any other examination and does not form a part of other course undergone by the candidate.</p> <p>Internal Examiner</p> <p>External Examiner</p> <p>2</p> <p>I hereby declare that project report titled Qualitative Analysis and Determination of MPN Index of various water sample collected from different sources at Sodepur, Kolkata Submitted to the SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH, MEDICAL &amp;TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of Bachelor of Science in Applied Biotechnology It is my original work and not submitted for the award of any other degree, diploma, or other similar title or prizes.</p> <p>Signature</p> <p>Kolkata Dated:</p> <p>Registration No. 05</p> <p>3</p> <p>Submitted by:</p> <p>ANUP KUMAR OJHAVI B.Sc. Biotechnology Roll No. 05 Subject code: BO0033 Centre code: 01831 Sikkim Manipal University</p> <p>Supervisor:</p> <p>Dr. I. P. PoddarChairman Subhasree Biotech A Unit of the Calcutta Silk Mfg. Co. Ltd. 23, B. T. Road KOLKATA-700115</p> <p>Project report submitted for the partial fulfillment of the requirement for qualifying B.Sc. Biotechnology from Sikkim Manipal University</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>4</p> <p>SL. NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. Certification of work Student deceleration Acknowledgement</p> <p>TOPIC</p> <p>PAGE NO. ------08 - 12</p> <p>Introduction Water quality &amp; Contaminants Sources of drinking water in the Earth Coliform Index Indicator organism Quality of potable water</p> <p>5. 6.</p> <p>Aim &amp; Objective Materials &amp; Method Materials Methods 1. Preparation of culture media 2. Test for water potability and determination of MPN Index 3. Gram Staining 4. MPN Index</p> <p>13 13-18</p> <p>7. 8. 9.</p> <p>Observation &amp; Result Discussion Reference</p> <p>18 - 22 23 23 - 24</p> <p>Acknowledgement</p> <p>5</p> <p>The work embodied in the project has been carried out for partial fulfillment of the requirement for the completion of B.Sc. Biotechnology from Sikkim Manipal University. The project has been entitled as Qualitative Analysis and Determination of MPN Index of Various Water Samples Collected from Different Sources at Sodepur, Kolkata. I would like to convey my thanks and regards to Dr. I. P. Poddar, Director of Subhasree Biotech. It is, indeed, for him I learnt a lot during the tenure of my training period. My special thanks go to Dr. S. Sukul and Dr. P. Datta for providing me this opportunity to work in this highly esteemed laboratory and also for the valued suggestions given from time to time which, I believe, will go a long way with me to build an enshrining future ahead. It is my extreme pleasure and great opportunity to express my profound sense of gratitude to Mr. Tanmoy Sarkar and Mr. Soummya Seal, Project Associate, Subhasree Biotech for their guidance, constant encouragement, affection and great help in the completion and presentation of this project work. I also express sincere gratitude to Mr. Sidhartha Banerjee, Mr. Anirban Roy Chowdhury and Mr. Sumit Kumar Dey for their constant inspiration as well as warm and valuable suggestions which helped me a lot to complete this project work. I also tender my owe to the Director cum Principal Mr. S.K.D Burman, Faculty in-charge Mrs. Sanjogita Basu and other respected faculties of ABC Foundation for granting my long cherished dream to work amidst expertise and state-of-the-art laboratory. Last but not the least; I thank my parents for their all round support extended at the time of need.</p> <p>(ANUP KUMAR OJHA) VI B.Sc. Biotechnology Registration No: 520687137 Learning Centre Code: 01831 ABC Foundation Sikkim Manipal University</p> <p>6</p> <p>7</p> <p>1. INTRODUCTION Water of sufficient quality to be used as drinking water is termed Potable Water. Although many fresh water sources are utilized by humans, some contain disease vectors or pathogens and cause long-term health problems if they do not meet certain water quality guidelines. Water that is not harmful for human beings is sometimes called safe water that is not contaminated to the extent of being unhealthy. The available supply of drinking water is an important criterion for the population supported by the planet Earth. As of the year 2006 (and pre-existing for at least three decades), there is a substantial shortfall in availability of potable water, primarily arising from overpopulation in lesser developed countries. As of the year 2000, 37% of the populations of lesser developed countries did not have access to safe drinking water [1]. Implications for disease propagation are significant. The World Health Organization (WHO) sets international standards for drinking water. Typically water supply networks deliver a single quality of water, whether it is to be used for drinking, washing or landscape irrigation; one example is urban China, where drinking water can be optionally delivered by a separate tap. In the United States, public drinking water is governed by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) that protects the right of employees to report potential violations. The standard test for bacterial contamination is a laboratory analysis of coliform bacteria, a convenient marker for a class of harmful fecal pathogens. The presence of fecal coliforms (like Escherichia coli) serves as an indication of contamination by sewage. Over large parts of the world, humans drink water that contains disease vectors or pathogens or contain unacceptable levels of dissolved contaminants or solids in suspension. Such waters are not potable water and drinking such waters or using them in cooking leads to widespread acute, chronic illness and sometimes even death. 1.1. Water quality and contaminants Throughout most of the world the most common contamination of raw water sources is from human sewage and in particular human faecal pathogens and parasites. In 2006, waterborne diseases were estimated to cause 1.8 million deaths each year while about 1.1 billion people lacked proper drinking water.[1]. It is clear that people in the developing world need to have access to good quality water in sufficient quantity, water purification technology and availability and distribution systems for water. In many parts of the world the only sources of water are from small streams often directly contaminated by sewage. Even wells do not eliminate the risk of contamination. Most water requires some type of treatment before use. The extent of treatment depends on the source of the water.</p> <p>8</p> <p>The most reliable way to kill microbial pathogenic agents is to heat water to a boiling [3], but this requires abundant sources of fuel and is very onerous on the households especially where it is difficult to store boiled water in sterile conditions. Other techniques, such as varying forms of filtration, chemical disinfection, and exposure to ultraviolet radiation (including solar UV) have been demonstrated in an array of randomized control trials to significantly reduce levels of water-borne disease among users in low-income countries. Parameters for drinking water quality typically fall under two categories: chemical/ physical and microbiological. Chemical/ Physical parameters include heavy metals, trace organic compounds, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and turbidity. Microbiological parameters include Coliform bacteria, E. coli, and specific pathogenic species of bacteria (such as cholera-causing Vibrio cholerae), viruses, and protozoan parasites. Chemical parameters tend to pose more of a chronic health risk through build-up of heavy metals although some components like nitrates/ nitrites and arsenic may have a more immediate impact. Physical parameters affect the aesthetics and taste of the drinking water and may complicate the removal of microbial pathogens. Originally, fecal contamination was determined with the presence of coliform bacteria, a convenient marker for a class of harmful fecal pathogens. The presence of faecal coliforms (like E. coli) serves as an indication of contamination by sewage. Additional contaminants include protozoan oocysts such as Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia lamblia, Legionella, and viruses (enteric) [5]. Microbial pathogenic parameters are typically of greatest concern because of their immediate health risk. 1.2. Sources of drinking water in the Earth Earth's surface consists of 70% water. But sources where drinkable water may be obtained include: </p> <p>Ground sources such as groundwater, hydrosphere zones and aquifers Precipitation which includes rain, hail, snow, fog, etc. Surface water such as rivers, streams, glaciers Biological sources such as plants The sea through de-salination</p> <p>As of the year 2000, 27% of the populations of lesser developed countries did not have access to safe drinking water [6]. This proportion has declined steadily over the last decades. Implications for disease propagation are significant. The lack of water and the lack of hygiene is one of the biggest problems that many poor countries have encountered. The problem has reached such endemic proportions that 2.2 million deaths per annum occur from unsanitary water 90% of these are children under the age of five [4]. Solar water disinfection is a low-cost method of purifying water that can often be implemented with locally available materials.</p> <p>9</p> <p>1.3.</p> <p>Coliform Index</p> <p>The Coliform Index is a rating of the purity of water based on a count of fecal bacteria. Coliform bacteria are microorganisms that primarily originate in the intestines of warmblooded animals. By testing for coliforms, especially the well known E.Coli, which is a thermo-tolerant coliform, one can determine if the water has probably been exposed to fecal contamination; that is, whether it has come in contact with human or animal feces. It is important to know this because many disease-causing organisms are transferred from human and animal feces to water, from where they can be ingested by people and infect them. Water that has been contaminated by feces usually contains pathogenic bacteria, which can cause disease. Some types of coliforms cause disease, but the coliform index is primarily used to judge if other types of pathogenic bacteria are likely to be present in the water. The Coliform Index is used because it is difficult to test for pathogenic bacteria directly. There are many different types of disease-causing bacteria, and they are usually present in low numbers which do not always show up in tests. Thermo-tolerant coliforms are present in higher numbers than individual types of pathogenic bacteria and they can be tested for relatively easily. However, the Coliform Index is far from perfect. Thermo-tolerant coliforms can survive in water on their own, especially in tropical regions, so they do not always indicate fecal contamination. Furthermore, they do not give a good indication of how many pathogenic bacteria are present in the water, and they give no idea at all of whether there are pathogenic viruses or protozoa which also cause diseases and are rarely tested for. Therefore, it does not always give accurate or useful results regarding the purity of water. 1.4. Indicator organism</p> <p>Indicator organisms are used to measure potential fecal contamination of environmental samples. The presence of coliform bacteria, such as E. coli, in surface water is a common indicator of fecal contamination. Coliform bacteria in water samples may be quantified using the most probable number (MPN) method, a probabilistic test which assumes cultivable bacteria meet certain growth and biochemical criteria. If preliminary tests suggest that coliform bacteria are present at numbers in excess of an established cut-off (the Coliform Index), fecal contamination is suspected and confirmatory assays such as the Eijckman test are conducted. Coliform bacteria selected as indicators of fecal contamination must not persist in the environment for long periods of time following efflux from the intestine, and their presence must be closely correlated with contamination by other fecal organisms. Indicator organisms need not be pathogenic . Non-coliform bacteria, such as Streptococcus bovis and Clostridia may also be used as an index of fecal contamination .</p> <p>10</p> <p>1.5. Quality of potable water Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to drinking water, safety of human contact, and for health of ecosystems. 1.5.1. Standards In the setting of standards, agencies make political and technical/scientific decisions about how the water will be used . In the case of natural water bodies, they also make some reasonable estimate of pristine conditions. Different uses raise different concerns and therefore different standards are considered. Natural water bodies will vary in response to environmental conditions. Environmental scientists work to understand how these systems function which in turn helps to identify the sources and fates of contaminants. The vast majority of surface water on the planet is neither potable nor toxic. This remains true even if sea water in the oceans (which is too salty to drink) is not counted. Another general perception of water quality is that of a simple property that tells whether water is polluted or not. In fact, water quality is a very complex subject, in part because water is a complex medium intrinsically tied to the ecology of the Earth. Industrial pollution is a major cause of water pollution, as well as runoff from agricultural areas, urban storm water runoff and discharge of treated and untreated sewage (especially in developing countries). 1.5.2. Parameters for measurement The complexity of water quality as a subject is reflected in the many types of measurements of water quality indicators. Some of the simple measurements are Temperature pH Dissolved Oxygen Conductivity Oxygen Reduction Potential (ORP)</p> <p>More complex measurements that must be made in a lab setting require a water sample to be collected, preserved, and analyzed at another location.</p> <p>The following is a list of indicators often measured by situational category:</p> <p>11</p> <p>Physical assessment </p> <p>Alkalinity Color of water PH Taste and odor (geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), etc) Dissolved metals and salts (sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, manganese, magnesium) Microorga...</p>