of 26 /26
NICOLE DAVIS PROJECT DATE BY DEC 2016 ZUNI & AMERICAN INDIAN NATIONS ARH6930: ART AND GLOBAL DIVERSITY Pinterest page of images, sources, articles, and videos: https://www.pinterest.com/charcole/uf-zuni-indian-nation/

PROJECT ZUNI & AMERICAN INDIAN NATIONS...Center: Zuni Elder, Si Wa Wata Wa, 1903. Current Zuni Elder, Clifford Mohooty. Right: Spanish Conquistadors Bottom Left: Welcome Sign for

  • Author
    others

  • View
    4

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of PROJECT ZUNI & AMERICAN INDIAN NATIONS...Center: Zuni Elder, Si Wa Wata Wa, 1903. Current Zuni...

  • NICOLE DAVIS

    PROJECT

    DATE BYDEC 2016

    ZUNI & AMERICAN INDIAN NATIONSARH6930: ART AND GLOBAL DIVERSITY

    Pinterest page of images, sources, articles, and videos:

    https://www.pinterest.com/charcole/uf-zuni-indian-nation/

  • IDENTITY AND HISTORY ANASAZI - PUEBLO - ZUÑI - ZUNI - A:SHIWI - SHIWI - SHIWI’MA

    Top Left: Cliff dwellings of Anasazi. Center: Zuni Elder, Si Wa Wata Wa, 1903. Current Zuni Elder, Clifford Mohooty. Right: Spanish Conquistadors

    Bottom Left: Welcome Sign for Zuni Reservation, Center: Zuni Spanish mission, Right: Seal of Zuni tribe

    Info from https://tskies.com/the-zuni-people-shiwima/

    - Zuni, formerly spelled Zuñi (Spanish influence), refer to themselves by many names - A:shiwi, Shiwi, or Shiwi’ma. Branch of larger Pueblo Nation. Anasazi is name for “Ancient Ones” ancestors of Pueblo.

    - Homeland is Shiwinnaqin, Northwest New Mexico and Northeast Arizona.

    - Today, 10-12K people live on Zuni Reservation, in Zuni Pueblo, on Zuni River in western New Mexico near Gallup, NM.

    - Spanish Franciscan mission established in early 1600’s, Zuni Christian Reformed mission established 1897.

    - Major bloody battle of Shiwinnaqin, drove out Spaniards, led by Francisco Vasquez Coronado. Pueblo Revolt of 1680.

  • GEOGRAPHICAL AND CULTURAL PRESENCE IN SOUTHWESTPUEBLO NATIONS OF AZ, NM, CO, & UT - ZIA SYMBOL & SIGNIFICANCE - NM STATE FLAG - NM STATE QUARTER

    New Mexico State Symbol, Flag, State Quarter feature the Native American Sun Symbol from Zia branch of Pueblo Nation.

    16 individual rays into four groups of four rays each… from clockwise: Four directions (North, East, South, and West), Four seasons (Winder, Spring, Summer, and Fall), Four parts of day (Morning/Dawn, Noon/Daylight, Afternoon/Dusk, and Night/Dark), and Four Life Stages (Infancy, Youth, Adulthood, and Old Age).

    Kokopelli - fertility deity of Hopi and Zuni Mythology

  • LANDSCAPE AND LIVING ADOBE - CLIFF DWELLINGS - KIVAS - PETROGLYPHS - WAFFLE GARDENS

  • CULTURAL BELIEFS AND SPIRITUALITYSACRED HOOP & 7 SACRED DIRECTIONS- MOTHER EARTH - MEDICINAL/SPIRITUAL HEALING - CEREMONIES - SACRED SITES

    images and information taken from nativecircle.com

    Top Left = Sacred Hoop - 7 Sacred Directions are Father Sky, Mother Earth, and the four winds (N-S-E-W) each representing a season, element, plant, and stage of life. Also considered to be a medicine wheel representing honor, respect, balance, and wisdom.

    Center = Mother Earth. Earth as alive and deeply loved, respected, protected, and often described with anthropomorphic qualities. Ex: Forests are lungs, wetlands is liver, waters are blood, winds are breath, and seasons are heartbeat.

    Right = Medicine - (“plants over pills”). The physical body is integrated with spiritual body. Western culture separates between medical doctor and religious priest. Holistic approach towards treating whole person with preference for natural (plants) over pharmaceutical remedies. Power that heals and medicine could be from plants, teas, songs, prayers, etc…

    Bottom Left:Zuni Salt Lake - salt from here used in ceremonies. Site of pilgrimage during dry month to pay homage to Salt Mother, Ma’l Okyattsik’i. 11th most endangered historical site.

    Center = Zuni dancers during Summer Solstice celebration.

    Right = Zuni Olla Maiden holding Corn.

    Ceremonies differ from each group, but main beliefs are the interconnectedness of all living things and to commune with the spirit world.

    Zuni deities: Earth Mother, Sun Father, and Moonlight-Giving Mother

    Zuni mythology/religious lore: Old Lady Salt, White Shell Woman, katsinas.

    Zuni religious pilgrimage: Koluwala:wa (summer solstice) and Zuni Salt Lake Pilgrimage.

    Corn is present a specific function and element to ceremonies.

  • ZUNI ARTISANSTURQUOISE JEWELRY - SILVERSMITHING - FETISH CARVING - KACHINAS - OLLI JAR POTTERY

  • OLLA JARS AND OLLA MAIDENSOLLA IS A WATER JAR MADE FROM CLAY AND OLLA MAIDENS BALANCE OLLI JARS FOR CEREMONIAL DANCES

    Top Left: Zuni Potter, photograph by Edward S. Curtis, early 1900s. Center: Olla Maidens performing at festival Right: Olla jars

    Bottom Left: Olla maidens performance holding corn Center: Classic Zuni Southwest Design Pot by Noreen Simplicio - (interactive zoom detail on link) http://bit.ly/2gpWZIB Right: Zuni Olla maidens of 1900’s.

  • ASSIGNMENT: TELL A STORY WITH SHAPES AND SYMBOLSWATER IS IMPORTANT IN DRY ENVIRONMENT - CREATE ORIGINAL SYMBOLS USING LINES, TRIANGLES, & CIRCLES

    Using geometric shapes (lines, triangles, and circles) to draw water symbols, rain birds, and environmental elements, tell a story about water/water cycle.

    Try drawing symbols: Running Water, Rain clouds, Waves, Thunder Rain Bird, Raindrops, Lightening, River, Lake, Wind, Land…

    Note: Spirit Lines dividing Underworld from the Earth/world (with four directions) and the Sky of the next world.

  • ASSIGNMENT: OLLA JAR POTTERYPAINT WATER STORY DESIGNS ONTO A PIECE OF POTTERY - OPTION TO CREATE OLLI MAIDEN DANCE CHOREOGRAPHY

    Top Left: Noreen Simplicio’s pot featuring deer with heart line and ladder on top Center: Zuni Artist Noreen Simplicio Right: Noreen Simplicio’s pot featuring rosette and deer in house. Bottom Left: Potter using coil method,

    Option 1: Students are provided a pre-made bisque jar/cup/bowl to paint their original designs on. Fired in a kiln at Cone^06.

    Option 2: Students create their own olla jar with clay. Students may use banding wheels, but avoid electric wheels, to push towards time-period methods. They may use any hand building technique such as coil, pinch, or slab.

    Option 3: Collect real jars from students who leave behind work over years, or create set of painted plastic bowls, that will be used in a race or group choreography. At end of assignment, divide students into groups and have them create a dance with olla jars, filled with water, on their heads. Or race. Or contest who can balance longest….on one foot, squat, spin, etc…

  • LEGAL TIMELINE

    • NATIVE AMERICANS WEREN’T CONSIDERED CITIZENS OR ALLOWED TO LEAVE THEIR RESERVATION OR LEGALLY VOTE UNTIL 1924 (INDIAN CITIZENSHIP ACT)

    • WEREN’T ALLOWED TO PROTECT THEIR LAND FROM US SEIZURE OR ESTABLISH THEIR OWN TRIBAL GOVERNANCE UNTIL 1934 (INDIAN REORGANIZATION ACT)

    • NATIVE AMERICANS COULDN’T ACTUALLY VOTE IN ALL 50 STATES UNTIL 1965 (VOTING RIGHTS ACT)

    • WEREN’T GRANTED FULL FREEDOM OF SPEECH, PRESS, & ASSEMBLY OR FULL RIGHTS TO A FAIR TRIAL UNTIL 1968 (INDIAN CIVIL RIGHTS ACT)

    • ANCIENT SPIRITUAL PRACTICES BANNED BY US AND WEREN’T GRANTED FULL RELIGIOUS FREEDOMS UNTIL 1978 (AMERICAN INDIAN RELIGIOUS FREEDOM ACT)

    • SACRED SITES STILL NOT PROTECTED • NATIVE AMERICANS COULD HAVE CHILDREN TAKEN FROM NATIVE FAMILIES UNTIL

    1978 (INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT) • COULDN’T PRACTICE THEIR LANGUAGE IN SCHOOLS UNTIL 1990 (NATIVE

    AMERICAN LANGUAGE ACT)

    TREATIES - LAWS - ACTS - GOVERNMENT

    Still fighting for:

    - voting, hunting/fishing, sovereignty, treaty rights (National Urban League)

    - water rights!

    Reflection - which Act surprised you the most?

  • STANDING ROCK RESERVATION- NORTH DAKOTA ACCESS PIPELINESTATE-SANCTIONED VIOLENT RESPONSES TO PROTESTS - MEDIA COVERAGE AND PORTRAYAL OF CONFLICT/CULTURE

    Top Left - Oceti Sakowin camp in North Dakota during December winter.

    Center - Red line is pipeline trail. Originally intended to cross through in Bismarck, but predominantly white community didn’t want it to go through their town.

    Right - Water cannons being used in sub-zero temperatures, barbed wire set up. Does this look like America?

    Bottom Left - Tattoo designed by Stephanie Big Eagle, descendent of Sioux Nation $35 tattoo with all proceeds going to Standing Rock. Center - Dec 5, Veterans arrive at Oceti Sakowin camp to help support during winter conditions and stand against pipeline and violent treatment of protestors.

    Right - Popular news in color and independent/social media/online news in black and white. Where do you get your news? Popular choices in color, but social/online media is in black and white.

    *Zuni went to court in1992 to oppose Salt River Project Fence Lake coal mine and rail transportation construction, which was proposed to be built near Zuni Salt Lake, their sacred pilgrimage and ceremonial site.

  • RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT: COMPARE THREE NEWS SOURCES ON HOW THEY PORTRAY

    THE STANDING ROCK CRISIS.PAY ATTENTION/LOOK FOR: - WHEN DID THEY FIRST COVER THE CRISIS? HOW OFTEN? - HOW ARE NATIVE AMERICANS, PROTESTORS, AND

    GOVERNMENT/AUTHORITY PORTRAYED? NAMES? - WHAT VIDEOS OR IMAGES ARE USED? - WHERE ARE THEY GETTING THEIR INFORMATION? WHOSE

    STORY/PERSPECTIVE ARE THEY REPORTING? - IS THEIR STORY ACCURATE? CURRENT? CENSORED/OMITTED,

    BIASED? - DO THEY SUGGEST ANY SOLUTIONS, ACTIONS, REPERCUSSIONS? - DO THEY MENTION TURTLE ISLAND? THANKSGIVING?

    Ask students: Where do you get your news? List 3-5 sources.

    Research and present (in written or oral form) how they portray the Standing Rock crisis?

    Discussion Topics for news sources (especially online):

    - What is “click-bait”?

    - How do you know if it is a real or fake story?

    - Should news be a neutral or biased? for profit? censored?

  • THE LAND OF THE FREE AND THE HOME OF THE BRAVE

    WRITING PROMPT:

    Writing Prompt: How does this carry new meaning in light of the Native American protests?

    - Last line from the Star-Spangled Banner.

    - Brave soldiers who fight for their country, their people, their families.

    - “Brave” often used to reference a Native American man, but is considered by Native Americans to be an offensive term…next slide discusses offensive stereotypes and cultural appropriation of Native Americans.

  • WHO IS A NATIVE AMERICAN?

    “IF YOU HAVE ONE DROP OF INDIAN BLOOD IN YOUR VEINS THEN YOU ARE INDIAN” -BLACK ELK, LAKOTA SIOUX

    Reflection: Do you agree or disagree?

    Key vocabulary words: indigenous and colonial

  • WHAT IS ETHNOCENTRISM?

    WHAT IS DIVERSITY?

    WHAT IS CULTURAL APPROPRIATION? CULTURAL

    AWARENESS? CULTURAL SENSITIVITY?

    What is a minority group? Marginalization?

    Why are these terms important?

  • CULTURAL APPROPRIATION…IN FASHION- CULTURAL (IN)SENSITIVITY - CULTURAL FLUIDITY - CULTURAL SEXUALIZATION - CULTURAL COSTUMES -

    traditional clothing is known as regalia, not a costume.

  • CULTURAL STEREOTYPES IN SPORTS MASCOTSENDING NEGATIVE OR DEROGATORY CARICATURES OF NATIVE AMERICANS

    Top Row: University of Washington Redskins, Cleveland Indians ‘Chief Wahoo’, Florida State Seminoles

    Bottom Row: Atlanta Braves, Syracuse Saltine Warrior/ ‘Big Chief Bill Orange’, Chicago Blackhawks,

    Offensive racial terms and slurs today include: Squaw, Redskin, Brave, Chief, Tonto, Squanto, Savage, ‘Wild Indians’.

  • CULTURAL INACCURACIES IN FILMCREATING THE IMAGE OF THE AMERICAN WEST WITH AN INACCURATE PORTRAYAL OF NATIVE AMERICANS

    - Pay attention to inaccurate imagery or derogatory words used in film.

    List of offensive words often used:

    Squaw, Redskin, Brave, Chief, Tonto, Savage, ‘Wild Indians’…

    Top Row: Right - Hiawatha-Founder of the Iroquois Nation, Bass Reeves aka The Lone Ranger, Original Pocahontas Portrait in England.

    Bottom Row: Disney’s Little Hiawatha (with pants that kept falling down), Johnny Depp as The Lone Ranger, and beautified Pocahontas.

    Also mention the “Piccaninny” Indian tribe in Peter Pan and the songs.

  • JOHN TWO-HAWKS

    John Two-Hawks is from Oglala Lakota Sioux Nation

    - Grammy nominated for Native American flute music

    - Listen to samples of his music on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/Two-Hawks-Signature-2-CD-Set-John/dp/B0009F8F4E

    - Sat on Q&A panel on Standing Rock with David Burnette (Sicangu Lakota) and Jason Salgado (Tongva) at Museum of Native American History in Bentonville, AR.

    - Available to visit classrooms, schools, and universities to speak on cultural etiquette and respect.

  • ASSIGNMENT: SUMMARIZE A CRISIS WITH A SYMBOLBANNER - STAMPS - SHIRT DESIGN - POLITICAL CARTOON - TATTOO DESIGN - DECAL DESIGN - DRAWING - PRINT

    Create a 2-D, black and white, design that sends a message about the Standing Rock protest. Aim for a design that interprets, symbolizes, or summarizes the crisis.

    Free to use figurative imagery and text.

    Possible mediums include: linocut, stamp, ink/graphite drawing, painting, political cartoon, temporary tattoo or decal, shirt design…

    Possible imagery includes: oil pipeline aka “the black snake”, eagles, water, feathers, etc…

  • ASSIGNMENT: USE TENSION TO CREATE MEANINGFUL ART EXPERIENCE TENSION AND STRATEGICALLY CREATE A MESSAGE ABOUT DAPL, WATER RIGHTS, & STANDING ROCK

    Create a 2-D, limited palate, watercolor that sends a message about the Standing Rock protest. Aim for a design that interprets, symbolizes, or summarizes the crisis. Text and figurative imagery are optional artistic choices.

    Pens and inks are an unlimited resource. Suggested that students work from light to dark, since their water will become contaminated throughout the painting process.

    *Min Wiconi - Lakota Sioux for “Water is Life”

    Strategically create powerful designs with a symbolic image, using contrast, and intentional color placement.

    Colors represent the Native American people and a drop of blue symbolizes the “water” resource.

  • CREATE TENSION WITH RESTRICTIONS:

    • PALATE IS RED, YELLOW, BLUE, BLACK, AND WHITE • ONE DROP OF BLUE PAINT • CANNOT CREATE TERTIARY COLORS (AKA ORANGES,

    GREENS, AND PURPLES)

    • ONE CUP OF CLEAN WATER AT START OF ASSIGNMENT.

    • A limited palate creates TENSION. This palate colors are symbolic for the Native American identity, who are experiencing a tense conflict over water. Students will use feeling of tension as a loose parallel to experience the crisis and redirect that tension with strategic artistic creativity.

    • Only one drop of blue is distributed by the teacher, representing the authority. *Option to give less blue paint to a select group of students to intensify tension on equality. The blue paint becomes precious and valuable because it is not a renewable resource. Students have to be very careful with how they use this color because it can run out quick. They also may have to blend with “white” (or another color) to make blue last longer.

    • Students can’t create tertiary colors (orange, green, or purple). This challenges them to work within limitations/restrictions imposed on them.

    • One cup of clean water is given at the start of the assignment. This symbolizes how paints (oil) leak into a main water source. *Option to use the olla jar/vessel students made earlier in unit as their water container. *Optional to use clear or opaque

    cup to control how much the student can visibly see their water becoming contaminated.

  • THE MATERIALS• WATERCOLOR PAPER AND PAINTBRUSHES • CUP OF WATER (LABELED WITH STUDENT NAME) • PENCIL • INK PENS/COLORED PENCILS - BLUE, BLACK, YELLOW, RED

    OR WHITE

    • PALATE WITH RED, YELLOW, BLACK, AND WHITE PAINT • SINGLE DROP OF BLUE PAINT ON EACH PALATE • *OPTIONAL: MASKING FLUID, TAPE, RULERS

  • ASSIGNMENT REFLECTION:• WHAT WAS YOUR EXPERIENCE LIKE WORKING WITH

    RESTRICTIONS/LIMITATIONS?

    • WHAT HAPPENED TO YOUR WATER? • WERE COLORS USED INTENTIONALLY? MOST VALUABLE? • HOW DO THE NATIVE AMERICAN’S WORK WITHIN THEIR

    RESTRICTIONS/LIMITATIONS/LACK OF WATER RIGHTS/LACK OF

    FREEDOM TO PEACEFULLY PROTEST?

    Did anyone feel anxiety about this assignment?

    Did anyone feel a need to protect, be careful, thoughtfulness, or intentionality with how much blue was used?

    What happened to the water? work from light to dark?

  • THE VOCABULARY LIST• ANTHROPOMORPHISM • HOLISTIC • ETHNOCENTRISM • DIVERSITY • CULTURAL APPROPRIATION • REGALIA • MARGINALIZATION • MINORITY • ICONOGRAPHY • TERTIARY

    • INDIGENOUS • COLONIALISM • CULTURAL SOVEREIGNTY • CULTURAL AWARENESS • CULTURAL SENSITIVITY • CARICATURE • STEREOTYPE • STATE-SANCTIONED • RACIAL SLUR

  • ASSIGNMENTS

    • 2-D WATER STORY DESIGNS • 3-D OLLA JAR • 2-D BLACK/WHITE PRINT • 2-D LIMITED PALATE

    WATERCOLOR PAINTING

    • VOCABULARY TERMS • PROMPT - STAR SPANGLED • PROMPT - WHO’S A NATIVE? • RESEARCH NEWS SOURCES • REFLECTIONS: LEGAL

    TIMELINE, END OF UNIT

    ART WRITING