Promoting Human Secur i ty :Ethical , Normat ive
and Educat ional Frameworksin Central Asia
Promoting Human Security:Ethical, Normative and Educational Frameworks
in Central Asia
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Any communication concerning this publication may be addressed to:Ms Moufida Goucha / Ms Claudia MaresiaSection of Human Security, Democracy and PhilosophySocial and Human Sciences SectorUNESCO1, rue Miollis75732 Paris Cedex 15, FranceTel: +33 1 45 68 45 54 / 52Fax: +33 1 45 68 55 52E-mail: email@example.comWebsite: http://www.unesco.org/securipax
Printed in 2006
Promoting Human Security:Ethical, Normative and Educational Frameworks
in Central Asia
Foreword by Ms Moufida GouchaPromoting human security: from concept to action 7
I The concept of human security 13
II Assessment of ethical, normative and educational frameworksfor the promotion of human security 191 The seven Stans and Iran: an overview 192 Normative and ethical frameworks 27Normative 27(i) National law/constitutions 27(ii) International law/conventions 29(iii) Customary law 32Ethical: behaviour of relevant state and non-state actors 34
3 Educational framework 37Relation between education and human security 37Situation in Central Asia 38
III Threats to human security 474 Political and social exclusion 475 Economic transition and Human Development Index 486 Conflicts over resources: between and within Central Asian states 537 Other cross-border and domestic threats 58Transnational terrorism and religious extremism 58Drugs 60HIV/AIDS epidemics 63Forced migration and human trafficking 65Environmental disasters 67
8 Human security for women 68Political participation 69Gender-discriminative traditions 71Domestic violence 75
IV Regional and international cooperation, a promising approach? 779 Regional cooperation 7710 Recommendations 84
Acronyms and abbreviations 101
Appendices 103Ms Anara Tabyshalievas brief biography 105
FinalRecommendations of theFirst InternationalMeetingofDirectorsof Peace Research andTraining Institutions on the themeWhat Agenda for Human Security in the Twenty-first Century? 107
Some UNESCO publications on Human Security, Peaceand Conflict Prevention 113
Promoting human security:from concept to action
During the last decade, human security has become acentral concern to many countries, institutions and social actorssearching for innovative ways and means of tackling the manynon-military threats to peace and security. Indeed, human securityunderlines the complex links, often ignored or underestimated,between disarmament, human rights and development. Today, inan increasingly globalized world, the most pernicious threats tohuman security emanate from the conditions that give rise togenocide, civil war, human rights violations, global epidemics,environmental degradation, forced and slave labour, andmalnutrition. All the current studies on security thus have tointegrate the human dimension of security.
Thus, since the publication of the United NationsDevelopment Programmes 1994 Human Development Report onnew dimensions of human security, major efforts have beenundertaken to refine the very concept of human security throughresearch and expert meetings, to put human security at the coreof the political agenda, at both national and regional levels and,most important of all, to engage in innovative action in the fieldto respond to the needs and concerns of the most vulnerablepopulations. Two landmarks in this process were the creation ofthe Human Security Network in 1999, made up of twelvecountries from all regions, which holds ministerial meetings everyyear; and the publication of the 2003 report of the Commissionon Human Security, Human Security Now: Protecting andEmpowering People, which has called for a global initiative topromote human security.
UNESCO has been closely associated with these effortsfrom the outset, in particular in the framework of its action aimed
at promoting a culture of peace. Thus, as of 1994, theOrganization launched a series of regional and national projectsrelating to the promotion of a new concept of security, ensuringthe participation of regional, national and local institutions, andinvolving a wide array of actors, including the armed forces, inCentral America and Africa.
On the basis of the experience acquired through theimplementation of those projects, human security became acentral concern for the Organization as a whole. A plan of actionfor the promotion of human security at the regional level wasadopted in 2000, as a result of the deliberations of the FirstInternational Meeting of Directors of Peace Research andTraining Institutions on the theme What Agenda for HumanSecurity in the Twenty-first Century?, held at UNESCOHeadquarters; and in 2002 human security became one of theOrganizations twelve strategic objectives as reflected in itsMedium-Term Strategy for 20022007. This strategic objective isclosely linked to UNESCOs contribution to the eradication ofpoverty, in particular extreme poverty, to the promotion ofhuman rights, as well as to its action in the field of naturalsciences, in particular regarding the prevention of conflictsrelating to the use of water resources.
The choice of adopting regional approaches to humansecurity has been most fruitful to date. In Africa, UNESCO, in closecooperation with the Institute for Security Studies of South Africa,has initiated action aiming at the formulation of a regional humansecurity agenda, addressing conflict prevention and many of theissues raised in the New Partnership for Africas Development(NEPAD) initiative, which UNESCO has fully supported from itsinception. In Latin America, cooperation with the Latin AmericanFaculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO) in Chile in 2001, 2003 and2005 led to important discussions of human security issues in theregion, and to the formulation of policy recommendations that havebeen submitted to the ministerial meetings of the Human SecurityNetwork and to regional intergovernmental meetings on
hemispheric security. In East Asia, building on important progressmade by subregional academic and political institutions, UNESCO,in collaboration with the Korean National Commission forUNESCO and Korea University, organized the 2003 meeting onHuman Security in East Asia, whose results were widelydisseminated. In March 2005, UNESCO and the Regional HumanSecurity Center in Amman (Jordan) jointly organized theInternational Conference on Human Security in the Arab States.UNESCO developed similar projects in Central Asia, incooperation with the OSCE Academy, in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), inSeptember 2005, and in South-East Asia, in collaboration withASEAN, in Jakarta (Indonesia), in October 2006. After a workshopon Human Security in Europe: Perspectives East and West,organized at UNESCO by the Center for Peace and HumanSecurity in Paris, in June 2006, the cycle of regional consultationswill be concluded in Africa in 2007.
With a view to opening new perspectives for focusedresearch, adequate training, preparation of pilot projects, and tofurther consolidate public policy and public awareness on humansecurity issues, UNESCO has launched a series of publications:Promoting Human Security: Ethical, Normative and EducationalFrameworks. These emphasize three important elements in order totranslate the concept of human security into action: (a) the need tohave a solid ethical foundation, based on shared values, leading to thecommitment to protect human dignity which lies at the very coreof human security; (b) buttressing that ethical dimension by placingexisting and new normative instruments at the service of humansecurity, in particular by ensuring the full implementation ofinstruments relating to the protection of human rights; and (c) theneed to reinforce the education and training component by betterarticulating and giving enhanced coherence to all ongoing efforts,focusing on issues such as education for peace and sustainabledevelopment, training in human rights and enlarging the democraticagenda to human security issues.
We hope that this series each publication focusing on aspecific region will contribute to laying the foundations of an in-depth and sustained action for the promotion of human security, inwhich the individual has a key role to play.
This paper examines the ethical, normative andeducational frameworks for the promotion of human security inCentral Asia, a region comprising Afghanistan, the IslamicRepublic of Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. These countries share a commonhistory, culture, resources and human security challenges andresponses, derived from their geographical proximity. Formerlyisolated from the international community and their neighbours,now all eight countries have tremendous opportunities to makeup for lost time by cooperating to overcome their many commonproblems and issues relating to human security, and acting asconcerned Silk Road Central Asian neighbours to devise andpromote strategies, projects and policies about human security.
The report is divided into four parts: examining thehuman security concept; assessing ethical, normative andeducational frameworks for the promotion of human security inCentral Asia; highlighting threats to human security common toall eight countries; regional cooperation and recommendations. Itbegins with a description of the regional and national challengesto human security, outlines the commonalities within the regionand briefly details the particular situation of each country. Thereport concentrates on issues relating to human security: politicaland social exclusion and economic insecurity, religiousextremism, inter-state and intra-state conflicts over resources,drugs and HIV/AIDS epidemics, forced migration and humantrafficking, environmental issues and gender disparity. Theoptions of regional cooperation that may contribute to thepromotion of human security are discussed in the last section.
The report suggests that attempts should be made to encouragewider regional discussion on human security issues in CentralAsia and proposes further UNESCO assistance in encouragingdialogue on a holistic approach to ethical, normative andeducational frameworks for the promotion of human securitybetween state and non-state actors at national and regional levels.
The concept of human security
The concept of human security first proposed in the 1994United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) HumanDevelopment Report has since been adopted by internationaldevelopment agencies and led to the establishment of the HumanSecurity Network. It is important to note that the utility of thisconcept, for Central Asia and other regions, lies in its deviationfrom classical notions of security that imply military power basedon state actors to a more inclusive and multifaceted notion ofsecurity based on the individual. This is expressed in the UNDPreport as follows:
For too long, security has been equated with threats to acountrys borders. For too long, nations have sought arms toprotect their security. For most people today, a feeling ofinsecurity arises more from worries about daily life than from thedread of a cataclysmic world event. Job security, income security,health security, environmental security, security from crime,these are the emerging concerns of human security all over theworld (UNDP, 1994, p. 3).
Since the publication of the report, human security hasremained a contested, complex, yet undeniably importantconcept and has evolved to become a key lexicon in internationalrelations, development, security studies, economics and socialsciences discourses.
Academic debates further elaborate the issue. In theirreferences to human security academics may be divided in twogroups: those authors who respectively adopt narrowconceptualizations versus those who adopt a broader view.
Advocates of a narrow focus on human security (Krause, Mack,Macfarlane, Paris, Buzan) refute a broad definition, interpretinghuman security more as freedom from physical violence. Thesedifferent interpretations are discussed below. According to EllenSeidensticker, human security diminishes excessive statediscretion in the promotion of human rights. In reality, nationalsecurity arguments are often used to justify the suppression ofhuman rights. The incorporation of the traditional notion of statesecurity into human rights law frequently qualifies rights to allowfor state discretion. Seidensticker believes that human securitywould be able to resolve conflicts between different humanrights, i.e. the need to suppress some human rights in order toprotect others (Seidensticker, 2002). As Caroline Thomas furtherexplains:
Human security describes a condition of existence in which basicmaterial needs are met, and in which human dignity, includingmeaningful participation in the life of the community, can berealized. Such human security is indivisible; it cannot be pursued byor for one group at the expense of another (Thomas, 2001, p. 161).
Roland Paris (2004) points out that the meaning of humansecurity made by the 1994 statement was unclear and broad,however it does offer a single definition of the humandevelopment concept. S. Neil Macfarlane (2004) points out thatthe core of human security is a shift in the referent of the conceptof security from the state to the individual, especially vulnerablegroups such as women and children. In this sense, statesovereignty and the primacy of the state are justified only to theextent that the states claim to protect the people within itsboundaries is credible, since the only irreducible locus ofsovereignty is the individual human being. Barry Buzan (2004)argues that human security redirects security thinking and policyaround the individual as the referent object. This is normativelyattractive, but analytically weak. Typically, citizens support state
systems that control territory, state independence and foreignrelations. The human security approach reverses this equation:the state and state sovereignty must serve and support thepeople from whic...