Slide 2 Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter -Reformation Slide 3 Rooted in Jewish tradition/Torah and the person of Jesus of Nazareth Jesus rabbi? who encouraged ethical self sacrifice Love God Love others Care for the vulnerable/outcastes Slide 4 Many stories written about the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Canon of 4 gospels established 4 th century CE Place Jesus as Messiah of Judaism; also: son of God and resurrected Slide 5 Proclaims special revelation: Jesus message meant to be universal not just for the Jews Travels & begins inclusion of Gentiles in synagogueseventually separate churches Some conflict with Jerusalem church Slide 6 Most from Paul Advice to early church communities How to live in the world Imminent 2 nd coming of the Christ (Messiah/Savior) By 2 nd century church leaders begin collecting manuscripts Slide 7 315 CE Edict of Milan Constantine Christianity becomes legal 325 CE Council of Nicaea uniform Christian doctrine Later 4 th century (Emperor Theodosius) Christianity becomes state religion of Roman Empire 382 CE Latin Vulgate: Old and New Testament Slide 8 What is the Nature of Christ? Heresies unofficial ideas/ ideas that go against official church; Eg: Nestorians, Arians Nicene creed meant to settle Eventually doctrine of the Trinity Slide 9 Roman Catholic/Latin Church becomes unifying factor among Germanic tribes & others Charlemagne sees himself as the military protector of the Church High Middle Ages- High Middle Ages- church power at height Slide 10 1054 Latin West v. Byzantine Empire Latin Church (Roman Catholic) Latin Church (Roman Catholic) Eastern Orthodox Eastern Orthodox Excommunicated each other; After 1453 Moscow/Muscovy declared self center of Orthodoxy Slide 11 Reconciling classical reasoning (Aristotle) and Christian faith Thomas Aquinas - Summa Theologica Forms the theological basis of the Roman Catholic Church Slide 12 Wealth & power of upper clergy (nobles) Investiture: simony & nepotism Lack of discipline among clergy Lack of education/knowledge among clergy Avignon Papacy & Great Schism Slide 13 Wycliffe John Wycliffe theology prof @ Oxford English translation of NT John Huss theology prof @ Prague Burned at the stake This heresy: objected to worldliness of clergy; advocated personal salvation; challenge to church authority Slide 14 Renaissance Humanism outside of Italy Different emphasis concern over problems in society Search for more personal religious practices Erasmus, T. More, Rabelais Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 The Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation ended the unity of the Christian church in the West Christianity was eventually fragmented into dozens of denominations Why did Christian unity come to an end and how did that impact society? Slide 18 Began in German states because it lacked a strong central government Holy Roman Empire included over 300 semi-independent states Some wanted independence from the Holy Roman Empire Weak emperor could not control independent ideas about religion within the German states Slide 19 started Reformation German monk, became professor of theology at University of Wittenberg How did his movement start? Slide 20 October 31, 1517: nailed on door of Wittenberg Church the 95 Theses arguments to debate - Criticized sale of indulgences Printed copies of Theses spread Slide 21 justification by faith only Gods grace through Christ saves; no amount of good works could do it... priesthood of all believers all Christians are equal before God these ideas challenged basic church doctrine, tradition and authoritythat is, they were heresy Slide 22 1521: Pope Excommunicated Luther Diet of Worms (Germany) - tried to get Luther to recant criticisms Luther refused; condemned as a heretic Went into hiding; translated Bible into German The Empire Strikes Back! Slide 23 Emphasized salvation by faith alone Bible only source of religious truth Church = community of individual believers Stressed faith and good works in salvation Church authority & teachings important as spiritual guide Church = clerical hierarchy Slide 24 All occupations were vocations in which people could serve God Ministers guides only baptism & communion Priesthood only calling in which people could serve God Priests special powers administer 7 sacraments Slide 25 Luthers conflict with the church led to violence Peasants revolted - the Lutheran princes crushed the rebellion Civil War between the HRE supported by Catholic princes & the Lutheran princes 1555 Peace of Augsburg Slide 26 Slide 27 John Calvin & Predestination John Calvin & Predestination or Doctrine of the Elect Protestant work ethic & success Anabaptism Many, many others Significance Slide 28 Protestantism spreads --- While Lutheranism spread in Northern Germany and Scandinavia Calvinism spread into Scotland (Presbyterians), England (puritans), Netherlands (Dutch Reformed) especially Huguenots were Calvinists in France Slide 29 Council of Trent Society of Jesus/ Jesuits Inquisition Index Goal: to halt spread of heresy Slide 30 Options: Try to eliminate Protestantism Change to Protestantism .what are other options? Slide 31 HRE HRE Charles V & the German Wars of Religion Charles Habsburg domains The Turks Lutheranism war Peace of Augsburg 1555 Retirement!!! Slide 32 Phillip II of Spain (Charles Vs son) Inherits Spain, Netherlands & later Portugal Netherlands revolt when P cracks down on independence and Protestantism Protestant part becomes independent: United Provinces/ Dutch Netherlands Slide 33 Amsterdam -financial power house Shipped almost all trade in North, Baltic Atlantic and Arctic seas Joint stock companies & stock exchanges freedom of religion, speech & press (more or less) Science, philosophy, art Tech innovation Slide 34 France endures religious wars through 4 kings eventually protestants (Huguenots) are given some religious freedom for a while and the right to fortify their towns (Edict of Nantes) Slide 35 Why did England officially separate from the Catholic Church? How did this impact the English Reformation? Slide 36 Englands King Henry wanted to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon for not producing a male heir to the throne (daughter: Mary) Catholic Church forbade divorce - refused to dissolve Henrys marriage Slide 37 Henry withdrew England from Catholic Church married Anne Boleyn and created a new church Act of Supremacy Act of Supremacy - Parliament created Church of England (Anglican Church) with king as its head King took church lands and abolished monasteries important Englishmen were required to swear oath accepting king as head of the church instead of the Pope... Slide 38 Sir Thomas More Sir Thomas More - King Henrys former chancellor who refused to take the oath. As humanist believed in religious tolerance - but was loyal to the Catholic Church (author of Utopia!) Beheaded for treason Slide 39 Catherine of Aragon - Mary Anne Boleyn - Elizabeth Jane Seymour- Edward Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr Son Edward inherited throne 1st Div Beh Died Div Beh Surv Slide 40 Slide 41 Henry was NOT a protestant Very few changes were allowed in the church by Henry However, changes were made during the period of Henrys son and the English church adopted more protestant ideas Slide 42 The boy king, Edward, was under a regent because of his minority The 1 st regent his uncle introduced Protestant reforms into the church: English liturgy Anglican Prayer Book Salvation by faith Images, ornamentation & much ritual removed When sickly Edward died at 16 some protestant nobles attempted to keep his sister Mary from inheriting the throne because she was Catholic Slide 43 Edwards 15 year old cousin Lady Jane Grey was claimed Queen by some dominant nobles Duke of Northumberland had arranged a marriage between her and his son, Guilford Dudley But quickly people rallied to the support of the rightful heir, Mary Tudor Troops abandoned Jane for Mary Guilford & Jane were executed for treason She had been queen 9 days Slide 44 Catholic daughter of Catherine of Aragon Married Catholic Philip II of Spain Sought to revive Catholicism Protestants revolted Persecution of Protestants led to her being known (by Protestants) as: Bloody Mary Bloody Mary (but she wasnt) Slide 45 25 years old; ruled 45 years! Protestant; re-established the Anglican Church as the National Church The Virgin Queen never married because it helped her keep peace w/ other countries Emphasized loyalty for England over religion Slide 46 Slide 47 assassination plots against Elizabeth 1587 forced to order the execution of her Catholic cousin, Mary Queen of Scots Catholic Mary (Stuart) had been living in England after haven been driven from Scotland by scandal & Protestant uprising Catholic Spain wanted Elizabeth dead so Mary could take the throne Slide 48 assassination plots against Elizabeth 1587 execution of her Catholic cousin, Mary Queen of Scots Spain attempted an invasion with their feared invincible Armada (navy) English pirates had been attacking Spanish ships and New World ports The Armada was defeated by the weather and the smaller, faster English ships Slide 49 Slide 50 Science to Enlightenment How a mixture of Protestantism & Scientific discovery led to new ideas about government Slide 51 Scientific Revolution Before the revolution Before the revolution Scholars relied on established authorities for truth Scholars relied on established authorities for truth Established authorities included: Established authorities included: The Bible & early church writings The Bible & early church writings The Catholic Church The Catholic Church Aristotle, Galen (medicine) Aristotle, Galen (medicine) Slide 52 Astronomy before Revolution: Geocentric Theory Earth is the center of the universe. Earth is the center of the universe.