Protists - Loudoun County Public Vertebrates: Reptiles Characteristics body structure dry skin, scales,

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  • Protists

    Simple Eukaryotes

    Regents Biology 2006-2007

    Domain Bacteria

    Domain Archaebacteria

    Domain Eukaryotes

    Common ancestor

    Simple Eukaryotes

  • General characteristics

    � Classification criteria

    � eukaryotes

    � not animal, plant or fungi

    Regents Biology

    That’s more of what they’re not

    & not what they are!

  • Protist Diversity

    � A great variety in ways of life

    � one-celled to many-celled

    � autotrophs (photosynthesis) to heterotrophs (have to eat)

    � asexual to sexual reproduction

    Regents Biology

    � asexual to sexual reproduction

    � pathogens to beneficial

    � sessile to mobile

  • Mobility

    � How Protists move

    � flagellum

    � cilia

    � pseudopod

    Regents Biology

  • Protist Diversity

    � Animal-like Protists

    � heterotrophs, predators � Amoeba

    � Paramecium

    � Stentor

    Paramecium with food vacuoles stained red

    Regents Biology

    � Stentor

    Amoeba ingesting a Paramecium

  • Protist Diversity

    � Plant-like Protists

    � autotrophs, photosynthesis

    � Euglena

    � algae

    � diatoms

    Regents Biology

    � diatoms

  • Protist Diversity

    � Parasitic & pathogen Protists

    � malaria

    � Giardia

    � trypanosomes

    Plasmodium

    Regents Biology

    Giardia

    Trypanosoma

  • Protist Diversity

    � Beneficial & necessary Protists

    � phytoplankton

    � small algae + diatoms

    � much of the world’s photosynthesis

    � produces ~90% of atmospheric oxygen

    Regents Biology

    � produces ~90% of atmospheric oxygen

    � zooplankton

    � heterotroph protists

    � key ecological role at base of marine food web

    Mmmmmm! Keeps me goin’!

  • Kingdom: Animals

    Complex Eukaryotes

    2007-

    2008

    Domain Bacteria

    Domain Archaea

    Domain Eukarya

    Common ancestor

    Complex Eukaryotes

  • Animal Characteristics

    � Heterotrophs

    � must ingest others for nutrients

    � Multicellular

    � complex bodiescomplex bodies

    � No cell walls

    � allows active movement

    � Sexual reproduction

  • sponges jellyfish flatworms roundworms mollusks segmented worms

    insects spiders

    starfish vertebrates

    segmented body internal skeleton

    Animal Evolution

    many-celled

    Ancestral Protist

    tissues

    left-right symmetry

    separate digestive system

  • Invertebrate: Porifera

    � Sponges

    � no organized tissues or organs

    � food goes in & waste comes out same opening

    food taken into each cell separately

    comes out same opening

  • Invertebrate: Cnidaria

    � Jellyfish, hydra, sea anemone, coral

    � tissues, but no organs

    � two cell layers

    � predators

    � tentacles surround mouth opening

    � digested material absorbed into cells

  • Invertebrate: Platyhelminthes

    � Flatworms

    � tapeworm, planaria

    � mostly parasitic

    � digestive tube

    tapeworm

    � now have separate mouth & anus

  • Invertebrate: Nematoda

    � Roundworms

    � digestive tube

    � have separate mouth & anus

    � many are parasitic

    hookworm� hookworm

  • Invertebrate: Mollusca

    � Mollusks

    � clams, snails, squid

    � soft bodies, mostly protected by hard shells

    � digestive tube

  • Invertebrate: Annelida

    � Segmented worms

    � earthworms, leeches

    � segments are all the same

    � digestive tube

    fan worm leech

  • Invertebrate: Arthropoda

    � Spiders, insects, crustaceans

    � most successful animal group

    � segmented

    � allows jointed legs & arms

    � exoskeleton

  • Arthropod groups arachnids 8 legs, 2 body parts spiders, ticks, scorpions

    insects 6 legs, 3 body parts

    crustaceans gills, 2 pairs antennae crab, lobster, barnacles, shrmp

  • Invertebrate: Echinodermata

    � Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumber

    � radial symmetry

    � spiny exoskeleton

  • � Vertebrates

    � fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals

    � internal bony skeleton

    � backbone

    skull-encased brain

    Vertebrata

    becomes brain & spinal cord

    � skull-encased brain

    becomes vertebrae

    becomes gills or Eustachian tube

    becomes tail or tailbone

    Oh, look… your first

    baby picture!

  • Vertebrates: Fish Lampreys, salmon, trout, sharks450 mya

    � Characteristics

    � body structure

    � paired fins

    � scales

    � body function

    gills

    body

    � breathe with gills

    � two-chambered heart

    � cold-blooded (ectotherm)

    � reproduction

    � external fertilization

    � external development in aquatic egg

  • lung

    buccal cavity

    glottis closed

    Vertebrates: Amphibian

    � Characteristics

    � body structure � legs (walk on land)

    � moist skin

    � body function � breathe with lungs & through skin

    frogs salamanders toads

    350 mya

    � breathe with lungs & through skin

    � three-chambered heart

    � cold-blooded (ectotherm)

    � reproduction � external fertilization

    � external development in aquatic egg

    � metamorphosis (tadpole to adult)

  • Vertebrates: Reptiles � Characteristics

    � body structure � dry skin, scales, armor (shells)

    � body function � breathe with lungs

    � three-chambered heart

    250 mya dinosaurs, turtles lizards, snakes alligators, crocodile

    � three-chambered heart

    � cold-blooded (ectotherm)

    � reproduction � internal fertilization

    � external development in hard-shelled egg

    embryoleathery shell

    chorion

    allantois yolk sac

    amnion

  • Vertebrates: Birds � Characteristics

    � body structure � feathers & wings

    � thin, hollow bone; flight skeleton

    � body function

    150 mya finches, hawk ostrich, turkey

    � body function � very efficient lungs & air sacs

    � four-chambered heart

    � warm-blooded (endotherm)

    � reproduction � internal fertilization

    � external development in hard-shelled egg

    trachea

    anterior air sacs

    lung

    posterior air sacs

  • Vertebrates: Mammals � Characteristics

    � body structure � hair

    � specialized teeth

    � body function � breathe with lungs, diaphragm

    220 mya / 65 mya mice, ferret elephants, bats whales, humans

    muscles contract

    � breathe with lungs, diaphragm

    � four-chambered heart

    � warm-blooded (endoderm)

    � reproduction � internal fertilization

    � internal development in uterus

    � nourishment through placenta

    � birth live young

    � mammary glands make milk

    diaphragm contracts

  • That’s the buzz…

    AnyAny Questions?