CSIRO pubLishing gardening guides
jan e varku levic i us
pruning forflowers and fruit
The best groomed and most productive garden is easy when you know what to prune when and how your plants work.
pruning for flowers and fruit covers plants in cool-temperate to subtropical climates and is suitable for the home gardener, avid enthusiast as well as the nursery trade and horticultural students. it includes annuals, ornamentals, vegetables, roses, perennials and hydrangeas, and fruiting plants that can be pruned to fit in your back garden.
The author shows how to choose the best plant at the nursery, prune weather damaged plants, renovate ornamental or fruiting trees and shrubs, and maintain your secateurs like a professional.
create different landscape features such as pleached avenues, design elements like hedges and the more fanciful topiary. show off your plants juvenile foliage or beautiful bark, or sustainably harvest wood for carpentry or craft by following the steps on how to coppice or pollard plants.
never get your wisteria in a twist again and learn to prune with confidence following techniques that range from the most basic through to those for the most advanced espaliers.
CSIRO pubLishing gardening guides
PRUNING FOR FLOWERS AND FRUIT
DedicationTo my axillary buds sometimes opposite and sometimes alternate. I could not have written
this without the constant support of my family, JV, Rosie and Jack Varkulevicius.
CSIRO PUBLISHING GARDENING GUIDES
PRUNING FOR FLOWERS AND FRUIT
E. Jane Varkulevicius 2010
All photographs and drawings copyright of the author unless otherwise attributed.
All rights reserved. Except under the conditions described in the Australian Copyright Act 1968 and subsequent amendments, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, duplicating or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Contact CSIRO PUBLISHING for all permission requests.
National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entryVarkulevicius, Jane.Pruning for flowers and fruit / Jane Varkulevicius.
Pruning.Fruit Pruning Handbooks, manuals, etc.Gardening Handbooks, manuals, etc.Flowers Handbooks, manuals, etc.
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Why prune? xi
1 How plants grow 1Cambium the uniting force 1
Hormones and meristems (points of growth) 2
Buds apical and otherwise 3
How plants make their own food 5
Your site and plant selection 7
2 Plant quality, propagation and performance 15Choosing the right plant at the nursery 15
Propagation and landscape use 21
Staking plants 24
When to prune 26
3 Techniques and tools 29So what is the kindest cut? 29
Rubbing off 30
Pinching out, tip pruning 32
How to cut 33
Root pruning 44
Suckers and how to deal with them 46
4 Ornamental plants 49Trees, shrubs, variegated plants, herbaceous perennials, grasses and tufty plants 49
Pollarding and coppicing 82
Planting a hedge 86
vi PRUNING FOR FLOWERS AND FRUIT
Formal hedges 90
Informal hedges 93
Renovating older trees and shrubs 102
Climbing plants ornamental and edible 108
Pruning weather-damaged plants 121
5 Fruit trees 125Selecting fruit trees 125
Free-standing fruit trees 126
Espalier trees in small spaces 131
Renovating fruit trees 137
6 Deciduous fruit trees 143Apples Malus spp. 143
Apricots Prunusarmenica 147
Cherries Prunusavium, P.cerasum 150
Chestnuts Castaneasativa 153
Figs Ficuscarica 153
Hazelnuts Corylusavellana 155
Medlar Mespilusgermanica 157
Mulberry Morusnigra, M.rubra, M.alba, M.macroura 157
Dwarf mulberries 158
Nectarines, peaches, peacharines and almonds Prunuspersica var. nectarine, P.persica, P.dulcis 158
Pears Pyrus spp. 160
Persimmon Diospyroskaki 162
Pistachio Pistaciavera 163
Plums Prunusdomestica, P.salicina 163
Pomegranate Punicagranatum 165
Quince Cydoniaoblonga 166
Walnuts Juglansregia 167
7 Evergreen fruit trees 169Avocado Perseaamericana 169
Carob Ceratoniasiliqua 170
Loquat Eriobotryajaponica 171
Macadamia Macadamiaintegrifolia, M.tetraphylla 172
Olive Oleaeuropa 173
White sapote Casimiroaedulis 175
8 Citrus 177Citrus fruit Citrus spp., Fortunella spp. 177
9 Fruiting shrubs 181Pineapple guava Feijoasellowiana syn. Accasellowiana 181
Cherry guava Psidiumlittorale var. longipes 182
Tamarillo, tree tomato Cyphomandrabetacea 182
Pepino Solanummuricatum 183
10 Berry fruit 185Blueberry Vaccinium spp. 186
Currants Ribes spp. 187
Red and white currants Ribessativa, R.rubrum 188
Black currants Ribesnigrum 189
Gooseberry Ribes spp. 190
Strawberries Fragariaananassa 190
11 Cane berries 193Raspberries Rubusidaeus, R.idaeus var. strigosus 193
Bramble berries Rubus spp. and hybrids 196
With special thanks to Richard Aarons who kindly read through my drafts. His thoroughness, honesty and tact were most gratefully received and very much appreciated.
Many others were kind enough to help with their expertise and advice. Grateful thanks to all of you: Clifford Aarons; Richard Aarons; Greg and Jenny Bradshaw; Annmarie and Grayham Brookman, The Food Forest; David Button, Alameda Homestead Nursery; Nick
Coulthard, Mount Mary Vineyard; Remy Favre and Blaise Vinot, Felco Distribution Pty Ltd; David Glenn, Lambley Nursery; Kath Kermode and Greg Daley, Daleys Fruit Tree Nursery; Bob Magnus, Woodbrige Fruit Trees; Frances Michaels, Green Harvest Organic Gardening Supplies; Becky Northey and Peter Cook, Pooktre; Phil Shepherd, Shepherds Nurseries; Granville Parker, Mornington Peninsula Olive Oil.
Pruning is all about how to control and direct plant growth. It is not brain surgery. Rarely are lives lost if a few simple rules are followed. Pruning is about how to bend plants to your will so you can make the most of every plant in your landscape, from fruit trees to groundcovers and grasses.
Anyone can prune; simply mowing the lawn is one form of pruning, but the results are more rewarding when you know what you are doing.
Armed with some pruning knowledge, when wielding secateurs or saw, you will make your plants more productive, more effective or simply more beautiful. Just like gentle discipline for children, good pruning should bring out the best in every plant.
Understanding how a plant grows greatly improves our confidence and effectiveness. When planting a new tree or shrub, how do you train it so it does not turn into a monster? When faced with a neglected tree or shrub, what is it the gardener sees? The tangle of branches? A plant too big for its space? These can be intimidating. Where do I start? is the first despairing response, but the gardener is not seeing the full story.
Plants are made up of two major components: roots and shoots. Roots anchor the plant in the soil by growing with gravity, that is, downwards. They act as food storage units (like carrots), but most importantly they draw nutrients and water from the soil.
Shoots (stems and branches) grow against gravity, upwards, carrying leaves with them into the light. The leaves interact with the light where, together with carbon dioxide and water, they manufacture simple sugars and oxygen.
As always, once you understand the system it is easy to manipulate it. Once the gardener has grasped how plants work, you can start to train them to suit your requirements.
Knowing when to prune to maximise growth or suppress it means that your site can hold more species than you originally thought, or that a screening hedge can be hastened into growth.
Sharp, well-cared for tools are essential for the finest finish on well-groomed plants, and will ensure that pruning for plant health is as effective as possible. By learning how to prune, many disease problems disappear, so toxic sprays can be dispensed with just by enhancing the amount of light and air available to the leaves.
Encouraging flowering growth and therefore fruit-bearing wood can maximise home harvests. Pruning for fruit requires the gardener to identify what growth their plants produce on, and how to keep the balance between the food-manufacturing leaves that will feed the hoped-for harvest.
If flowers are the priority, the same theory applies. Timing the pruning and encouraging flowering wood, rather than cutting it off, will naturally promote the most floriferous of gardens.
xii PRUNING FOR FLOWERS AND FRUIT
Virtually no gardener starts to cultivate on a clean slate. There are always a few tough survivors on the site. Pruning can reinvigorate and renovate plants that have been long neglected. It can turn a tangled mess into a bower of beauty or create a bountiful harvest. Knowing how to prune can
make the most of whatever plants you may have inherited with your garden space.
However, it is essential that the pruner knows how plant systems work and develop. For successful pruning, the gardener needs to understand how plants grow.
1HOW P L A N T S G ROW
CambiumtheunitingforceScratch a woody twig and you will find a bright green layer called the cambium. The two plant parts, roots and shoots, growing in different directions, are united by a complex plumbing network. This is known as the cambium layer. This layer links the microscopic root hairs gathering soil nutrients and water, with the shoots and leaves manufacturing food (see Figure 1.1).
These two elements combine and are spread through the plant from the veins in every leaf to the tip of every root.
The cambium layer consists of vascular bundles made up of two distinct types of plumbing or vessels (see Figure 1.2).
The xylem and phloem form the core of the root. The xylem takes up the water and the phloem takes up minerals from the soil via
Figure 1.1 The xylem carries water and moves in one direction straight up from the roots and exits as water vapour through the leaves. The contents of the phloem move osmotically in both directions, carrying nutrients from the roots combined with simple sugars manufactured in the leaves. Together they penetrate and sustain all living parts of the plant.
PRUNING FOR FLOWERS AND FRUIT2
root hairs. The phloem also distributes sugars manufactured in the leaves to where it is needed in the plant. Together they penetrate and sustain all living parts of the plant. The xylem (pronounced zi-lem) is in charge of conducting water from the roots to the tip of the uppermost leaves one-way traffic heading straight up and exiting through the leaves as water vapour. This water vapour is why it is often cooler in the shade of a broad-leaved deciduous tree on a warm day. The phloem (pronounced flow-em) carries sugars manufactured in the leaves to the whole of the plant, depending on where the plant needs nourishment. Well-nourished plants with well-nourished buds
Figure 1.2 The cambium layer is made up of vascular bundles of xylem (dark green) and phloem (light green). The cambium layer, carrying nutrients up from the roots (right), and combining these with sugars manufactured by the leaves (left).
produce more flowers and fruit than impoverished buds.
How the riches of the cambium layer are disbursed determines how well parts of the plant are nourished. This distribution of nourishment, and therefore growth, is determined by plant hormones that are active in growth points otherwise known as meristems (pronounced merry stems).
Hormonesandmeristems(pointsofgrowth)As we all know, hormones are powerful things. Anyone that has lived with teenagers knows as much. They govern both the growth and development in all living things, including plants. A group of hormones called auxins govern which buds get nourished and produce growth, and which dont. Points of growth like buds are sites of active cell division stimulated with auxins (plant hormones) and are called meristems. Meristems will develop into buds producing leaves and wood, or flowers and fruit. Every seed/seedling starts with two meristems the radicle and the plumule that give rise to all other growth points (see Figure 1.3).
As the plant grows, branching occurs. These branches/stems emerge from the growth points, meristems that develop after the germination stage. Their growth is governed by the concentrations of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin.
These hormones are manufactured in the meristems (growth points) where plant cells are rapidly dividing to produce growth. They are found in the root tips and in buds.
31 HOW PLANTS GROW
BudsapicalandotherwiseBuds form the above-ground growth points on plants. They contain the actively dividing cells and plant hormones that produce growth. Due to the balance of auxins, however, not all buds were created equal.
ApicalbudsThese buds are those at the very top (apex) of the plant or plant stem and produce auxins that keep this top bud extending towards the maximum amount of light available. Auxins also inhibit the growth of side or axillary buds. The apical bud, fuelled with hormones, gets the priority grab of water, nutrients and sugars required for growth. This means that it can grow taller,
Figure 1.3 This seven-day-old snow pea started with two meristems. The radicle forms the roots, and the plumule that forms the above-ground parts. Note the roots are branching and the seedling mix is clinging to the microscopic root hairs that draw up water and nutrients. The plumule is just unfolding its seed leaves that hide a meristem that gives rise to the rest of the future pea plant.
bask in the light and out-compete the res...