Psy 311: Death and Dying DEATH AND DYING l Biological l Psychological l Social l Developmental

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Text of Psy 311: Death and Dying DEATH AND DYING l Biological l Psychological l Social l Developmental

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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying DEATH AND DYING l Biological l Psychological l Social l Developmental
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying What Causes Aging? What Causes Death?
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying What Causes Aging? l 1. Programmed theories Genes l 2. Damage theories Wear and tear
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying What Causes Aging? l PROGRAMMED Theories genetic pre-programmed inevitable universal
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying What Causes Death? 1. Programmed theories of aging l genes turn on & off l premature aging l endocrine or immune systems directs program
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying Maximum life span l Maximum number of years any member of a species has lived 110 to 120 years (for humans)
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying What Causes Aging? l DAMAGE theories of aging wear & tear disease disuse
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying What Causes Death (cont)? 2. Damage theories l Repair lags behind damage l As you age-- damage more easily repair more slowly l Evidence Physical: diet, exercise, substance abuse Psychological: stress, activity, outlook
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying DEATH AND DYING l Life expectancy average number of years a newborn can be expected to live l 76.5 years (US Census Bureau, 2000)
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying Society and Death l Historical changes in death 1900-average life expectancy= 49 yrs. half of children died, two wives
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying DEATH AND DYING Caucasian African-American l Males 74.968 l Females 79.975 l (US Census Bureau, 2000)
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying Factors which affect life expectancy: l nutrition l medical care l poverty l sanitation l child birth procedures l public health
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying What Causes Aging? What Causes Death? Aging and Death are processes. l Genetics l Environment l Own activity l Biological, psychological, social l INTERACTIONS over TIME
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying Process of Dying Process of Bereavement
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying Cultural Differences in the Process of Dying l Meaning of death l Process of dying where? with whom? how?
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying PROCESS OF DYING Aging & Death: future & past l Shift to years left l Reminisce- satisfied with life l Fear decreases as grow older l Elderly: comfort in loved ones & achievements
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying PROCESS OF DYING (cont.) The Experience of Dying l 1. Denial and isolation l 2. Anger l 3. Bargaining l 4. Depression l 5. Acceptance
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying PROCESS OF DYING (cont.) Critique and Alternatives l 1. Not stages l 2. Depends on illness process l 3. Individual and social influences
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying Cultural Differences in BEREAVEMENT l 1. Expressions of grief l 2. Duration of mourning l 3. Continuing relationship with the dead
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying Bereavement Experience of grieving l 1. Shock & numbness l 2. Yearning l 3. Depression l 4. Reorganization (yearly cycle)
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying Bereavement CHALLENGES to the GRIEF WORK Perspective l 1. Confront loss l 2. Deal with emotion l 3. Detach from person
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying BEREAVEMENT (cont.) Critique and Alternatives l 1. Not stages l 2. Depends on loss process l 3. Individual and social influences
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying BEREAVEMENT (cont.) Depends on Loss Process l 1. Relationship Parent, spouse, child, friend Closeness, dependency l 2. Cause of death On time vs. off-time Preventable, meaningful l 3. Supports and stressors
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying Social Support Helping People who are Dying or Grieving l 1. Not easy l 2. Remain engaged l 3. Respect individuality l 4. Take some of the load l 5. Patience l Hospice care or Professional help
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying Children Dying and Bereavement Experiences shaped by: 1. Developmental level and tasks. 2. Conception of death. 3. Cultural context. 4. Specific experiences. Parental and social support.
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying PRESCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN l 1. Aware of dying. l 2. Show distress indirectly. l 3. Few coping strategies (escape). l 4. Developmental tasks/ issues: Attachment/ Abandonment. Self-regulation/ Opposition.
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN 1. Can talk about it more directly. 2. Express distress more directly. 3. Pragmatic coping strategies. 4. Developmental Tasks/ Issues: Peer relationships/ Rejection. Social comparison/ Competencies.
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying ADOLESCENT CHILDREN 1. Understand all the implications. 2. Distress over lost possibilities. 3. Many coping strategies. 4. Developmental tasks/ issues: Body image/ Appearance. Identity/ Future lost. Autonomy/ Dependence on parents.
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying Children and Bereavement Understanding of death is consistent with cognitive level.
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying MATURE CONCEPTION l DEATH IS: Final Irreversible Universal Caused by internal processes
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying INFANTS l No concept of death. l Temporary grief from separation. l Long-term effects depend on replacement.
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying PRESCHOOL CHILDREN l Full-blown attachment l Few coping strategies l Biggest negative long-term effects
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying PRESCHOOL CHILDREN Conception of Death l Dead retain life functions l Death is reversible
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN Conception of Death l Cessation of life l Irreversible l Universal l Not understand causality of death
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying ADOLESCENCE l Mature conception of death
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying LAST NAME, first name l 1. According to theories of PROGRAMMED aging, what causes aging and death? l 2. According to DAMAGE theories of aging, what causes aging and death? l 3. Name 3 factors that influence how children experience dying and bereavement.
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  • Psy 311: Death and Dying END