Public Opinion and Political Socialization 10. Trace the development of modern public opinion research Describe the methods for conducting and analyzing.

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Public Opinion and Political Socialization 10 Slide 2 Trace the development of modern public opinion research Describe the methods for conducting and analyzing different types of public opinion polls 10.1 10.2 Learning Objectives 10 Slide 3 Assess the potential shortcomings of polling Analyze the process by which people form political opinions 10.3 10.4 Learning Objectives 10 Slide 4 Evaluate the effects of public opinion on politics 10.5 Learning Objectives 10 Slide 5 Roots of Public Opinion Research The Earliest Public Opinion Research The Gallup Organization The National Election Studies 10.1 Slide 6 The Earliest Public Opinion Research Polling to predict winner of elections Polling to discover public opinions Walter Lippmanns Public Opinion Literary Digest Straw poll Sample 10.1 Slide 7 Is polling always accurate? 10.1 Slide 8 FIGURE 10.1: How successful has the Gallup Poll been? 10.1 Slide 9 a.Survey b.Straw poll c.Sample d.Registered voters 10.1 Which term describes the people who are polled? 10.1 Slide 10 a.Survey b.Straw poll c.Sample d.Registered voters 10.1 Which term describes the people who are polled? 10.1 Slide 11 Conducting and Analyzing Public Opinion Polls Designing the Survey and Sample Contacting Respondents Analyzing the Data 10.2 Slide 12 Designing the Survey and Sample Determining the content and phrasing of the questions Wording is crucial Push polls Push polls Selecting the sample Population Random sampling Stratified sampling 10.2 Slide 13 Contacting Respondents Telephone polls Random digit dialing survey Whats the 21 st Century issue with this? 10.2 Slide 14 How are polls conducted? 10.2 Slide 15 Contacting Respondents Telephone polls Tracking polls 10.2 Slide 16 FIGURE 10.2: What does a daily tracking poll look like? 10.2 Slide 17 Contacting Respondents In-person interviews Exit polls Internet polls Scientific polls versus unscientific Web polls 10.2 Slide 18 Analyzing the Data Reveals implications for public policy and political campaigns Data analyzed by computers Subgroups of population, such as men versus women, age groups, or political ideology, may be analyzed Reporting the data News organizations or campaigns News organizations 10.2 Slide 19 a.Push poll b.Straw poll c.Tracking poll d.Stratified sampling 10.2 Which type of poll is designed to give a skewed result? 10.2 Slide 20 a.Push poll b.Straw poll c.Tracking poll d.Stratified sampling 10.2 Which type of poll is designed to give a skewed result? 10.2 Slide 21 Shortcomings of Polling Survey Error Limited Response Options Lack of Information Difficulty in Measuring Intensity Lack of Interest in Political Issues 10.3 Slide 22 Survey Error Margin of error Natural errors in statistical measurement Sampling error Happens when a pollster draws an improper sample 10.3 Slide 23 Limited Response Option Yes/No (Approve/Disapprove) May not give respondents sufficient room to answer Feeling thermometer Respondents rate feelings 0-100 10.3 Slide 24 Can polls measure intensity of opinion? 10.3 Slide 25 Lack of Interest in Political Issues Many people lack an opinion on certain policies Policies that dont affect people directly Policies that dont involve moral values Foreign policy Less likely to generate interest Domestic policy More likely to generate interest 10.3 Slide 26 10.3 Which of these can be a problem in designing, executing, or analyzing the results of a poll? 10.3 a.Lack of interest in political issues b.Difficulty in measuring intensity c.Limited response options d.Survey error e.All of the above Slide 27 a.Lack of interest in political issues b.Difficulty in measuring intensity c.Limited response options d.Survey error e.All of the above 10.3 Which of these can be a problem in designing, executing, or analyzing the results of a poll? 10.3 Slide 28 Forming Political Opinions Demographic Characteristics Family, Peers, and School The Mass Media Cues from Leaders or Opinion Makers Political Knowledge 10.4 Slide 29 Demographic Characteristics Gender Women historically more liberal than men 10.4 Slide 30 TABLE 10.1: Do men and women think differently about political issues? 10.4 Slide 31 Demographic Characteristics Race and ethnicity Differences among and within races and ethnicities Age affects political socialization Religion shapes political beliefs 10.4 Slide 32 Family, Peers, and School Family influence Children learn political beliefs at early age Peers are influential in middle or high school Political socialization in school 10.4 Slide 33 How do you encourage young women to think about careers in politics? 10.4 Slide 34 FIGURE 10.3: What are the ideological identifications of first-year college students? 10.4 Slide 35 The Mass Media Traditional news sources Americans are turning away from them Nontraditional news media Talk radio, online magazines, blogs Cable and Internet Often skewed 10.4 Slide 36 Cues from Leaders or Opinion Makers Political leaders use media to influence public President uses media as a bully pulpit 10.4 Slide 37 Political Knowledge Political knowledge and political participation Have a reciprocal effect on each other Americans level of civic knowledge Lower than 50 years ago 10.4 Slide 38 TABLE 10.2: What is the extent of Americans political knowledge? 10.4 Slide 39 Political Knowledge Gender gap Also affected by education, number of children, and marital status 10.4 Slide 40 a.Communication and receptivity b.Public education c.Political socialization d.Civic knowledge 10.4 The process by which individuals develop their political views is called: 10.4 Slide 41 10.4 The process by which individuals develop their political views is called: 10.4 a.Communication and receptivity b.Public education c.Political socialization d.Civic knowledge Slide 42 Toward Reform: The Effects of Public Opinion on Politics Public has become more of a critical player in national and international politics Polling a key part of that involvement 10.5 Slide 43 10.5 The influence of public opinion in politics has increased over the past 30 years due largely to: 10.5 a.The increase in Americans civic knowledge b.The increase in alternative political news sources c.The increase in the number of polls d.The decrease in traditional mass media Slide 44 10.5 The influence of public opinion in politics has increased over the past 30 years due largely to: 10.5 a.The increase in Americans civic knowledge b.The increase in alternative political news sources c.The increase in the number of polls d.The decrease in traditional mass media Slide 45 Discussion Questions What role do polls play in policy making? Should public opinion be considered when the government makes policy decisions? How much influence should public opinion have? 10 Slide 46 Video: So What? http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/OConner_Ch10_Public_Opinion_Se g6_v2.html 10

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