Public Opinion, Political Ideology & Political Socialization Ch. 11.

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<ul><li><p>Public Opinion, Political Ideology &amp; Political SocializationCh. 11</p></li><li><p>POLITICAL SOCIALIZATIONComplex process by which people acquire their political valuesPolitical Ideology - coherent set of beliefs about public policyPolitical socialization is how people acquire their ideologyAmericans tend to identify themselves as Conservative, Liberal, or Moderate</p></li><li><p>Freedom (LIBERTY):Freedom of: the absence of constraints on behavior - freedom to do something (liberty)Freedom from: immunity from fear and want; the fight against exploitation and oppressionOrder:Preserving life and protecting propertySocial Order refers to the established patterns of authority in society and to traditional modes of behaviorEquality:Equality of opportunity: Each person has the same chance to succeed in lifeEquality of outcome: Government must design policies that redistribute wealth and status so that economic and social equality are actually achieved</p></li><li><p>CONSERVATIVES (American)Higher value placed on freedom than on equality when the two conflict. Restrict freedom when threatened with the loss of order limit size of government (national) decrease regulation of business Pro-life support school vouchers freedom and tradition</p></li><li><p>LIBERALS (American)Gov should promote equality, even if some freedom is lost in the process, but who oppose surrendering freedom to government-imposed order larger role for governmentIncrease regulation of businessIncrease gun controlPro-choice</p></li><li><p>POLITICAL IDEOLOGYIdeological Types in the United States also include: Libertarians: People who favor freedom over both equality and orderCommunitarians: People who favor equality and order over freedom</p></li><li><p>The widely-shared beliefs, values, and norms that citizens share about their gov.Helps define the publics expectations towards the political process and its role in the process</p></li><li><p>Political Culture v. IdeologyPolitical CultureA set of general attitudes, ideas and beliefsBroadly informs and shapes a regions politics</p><p>IdeologyA set of specific attitudes, ideas and beliefsProvides or advocates a coherent plan for social, political, or economic action</p><p>Political culture is different from ideology because people can disagree on ideology, but still have a common political culture.</p></li><li><p>AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTUREDemocracyEquality of opportunityIndividual libertyCivic dutyRule of lawPrivate propertyCapitalismNationalism and exceptionalism</p></li><li><p>Equality</p><p>Americans strongly support: political equality legal equality equality of opportunity</p><p>There is much less support for equality of results social welfare less comprehensive than in other Western democracies</p></li><li><p>POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION</p></li><li><p>FAMILY#1 indicator of ideologyMore to do with ideology than party</p></li><li><p>RELIGIONCatholics and Jews more liberal on social and economic issues than Protestants (WASP)Religious differences make for political differencesSocial status discrimination or minority position w/i societyChristian Coalition</p></li><li><p>EDUCATIONMore education (higher degree) = more liberalLiberal education, professors, exposure, intellectual freedom</p></li><li><p>GENDERGender gapWomen reliable democrats since 60sShifted b/c of womens liberationMen identify more w/ RepublicansWomen: socialMen: military and economic </p></li><li><p>AGEOlder people vote more conservative than younger votes and at a higher rae</p></li><li><p>SOCIAL CLASSBlue collar (Laborer) typically DemocratWhite collar (Businessmen) typically RepublicanNew Deal coalition</p></li><li><p>RACE &amp; ETHNICITYArgument based on past policyAgree on more issues than disagreeBlacks more liberal coalition than whitesHispanics Cubans more conservative; hardcore Catholics more conservative, BUT immigration policy favors liberals</p></li><li><p>NEW DEAL COALITIONCoalition of Democratic state party organizations, city machines, labor unions and blue collar workers, minorities (racial, ethnic and religious), farmers, white Southerners, people on relief, and intellectuals</p></li><li><p>REAGAN CONSERVATIVESWhite (WASP), socially conservative, attracted to social conservatism on issues such as abortion, Christian right, and hawkish foreign policyReagan Democrats voted for Carter, then hated Carter, fell in love with Reagan, then voted for Reagan and Bush Sr. </p></li><li><p>GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONEast and West coast more liberalMid-West more conservativeUrban liberalSouth: 1870s-1950s Democrat solid south but tday social conservatives (whites especially)North more liberalEconomic and social </p></li><li><p>SUNBELT</p></li><li><p>How Americans Participate in PoliticsClass, Inequality, and ParticipationFigure 6.5</p><p>*Named after French legislature********</p></li></ul>


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