Putting Into Context the Value of UD_p21516tip

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)




  • AR413A: Planning 2 Lecture Notes Putting into Context the Value of Urban Design Arch. Eduardo F. Bober, Jr.

    Urban Design [definition review]

    - the art of creating and shaping cities and towns, giving form and character through the design of public spaces

    - involves arrangement of public spaces, buildings, transport systems, services, amenities - traditionally a subset of urban planning, landscape architecture, architecture - designing of cities without designing buildings(Barnett) - the art of making places (Cowan) - CONNECTS:

    o people and places o movement and urban form o natural and built environment

    - TRANSCENDS: o planning and transportation policy o building and landscape design o engineering o development economics

    Urban Design [relation to planning]

    - the element in the planning process that is concerned with finding an appropriate physical framework for human activities in cities.

    Urban Design [theory]

    - Urban design theory deals primarily with the planning and design of the public realm public realm = public space, public domain

    Urban Design [scope: public realm]

  • Urban Design [scope: private spaces]

    - Some aspects private spaces contribute to defining public spaces: o building facades o private gardens o front yards/backyards

    - These can be manipulated or controlled through prospective development/ design guidelines

    Urban Design Controls

    Incentive Zoning

    - allowing builders and developers more space if they provide certain desirable features and

    amenities such as plazas, arcades, and other open spaces

  • Cluster Zoning

    - creating special zoning policies and regulations for medium to large sized controlled


    Floor Area Ratio (FAR) - The proportions between

    the built area and the lot


    Floor Space Index (FSI)

    - established by dividing the area of the total floor space of the buildings by the site area,

    including half the area of any roads adjoining it.

    Architectural Guidelines

    - building heights

    - setbacks

    - building bulk

    - architectural character

  • Urban Design [scale]

    - The scale of urban design work ranges from city/town plans to as detailed as street furniture and

    environmental art

    Creates a

    sense of




    Urban Design [examples of projects]

    o streetscapes

    o mixed-use redevelopment

    o parks and open spaces

    o environmental graphics/way-finding

    o environmental art

    o urban renewal

    o historic preservation

    o township creation

    o waterfront developments

    o environmental lighting

  • Urban Design [best practices]

    - The best practices in UD can be associated with the following concepts/movements:

    new urbanism

    landscape urbanism

    smart growth

    sustainable street network

    heritage conservation

    transit-oriented development (TOD) Common Themes

    Character, image and response to context places which have their own character and which are well related to their context

    Spatial coherence and townscape structure buildings which have a collective value and create

    places which are distinctive and understandable

    Building design quality and external appearance buildings which are designed to be visually

    appropriate, attractive and fit for purpose providing architectural quality

    Movement, linkages, permeability and accessibility developments and places which support good

    connections and which are well integrated

    Security and safety designing places which are inherently safe in design

    Mixed-use, density and diversity promoting uses which add to vitality and variety

    Adaptability and flexibility ensuring places and buildings are robust

    Sustainability and eco-design buildings and schemes which are more energy efficient

    Design process and ongoing maintenance and management ensuring an effective design process

    starting with good analysis and ensuring ongoing care is considered

    Economic Value of Urban Design [premise]

    - Good urban design can be a factor for economic growth and regeneration o Assessment of what constitutes good design (refer to sample) o Identification of potential benefits o Formulating an overview of an impact assessment framework

    Economic Value [defined]

    o represents a measure of profit from a development o additional Gross Value Added created o measure of welfare or utility which incorporates economic, social and environmental


    good design can be seen as a public good non-rival non-excludable

  • Good urban design adds economic value by:

    o producing high returns on investments (good rental returns and enhanced capital values) o placing developments above local competition at little cost o responding to occupier demand o helping to deliver more lettable area (higher densities) o reducing management, maintenance, energy and security costs o contributing to more contented and productive work forces o supporting the life-giving mixed-use elements in developments o creating an urban regeneration and place marketing divided o differentiating places and raising their prestige o opening up investment opportunities, raising confidence in development opportunities and

    attracting grant monies o reducing the cost to the public purse of rectifying urban design mistakes

    Good urban design adds social and environmental value by:

    o creating well connected, inclusive and accessible new places o distributing mixed-use environments with a broad range of facilities and amenities

    available to all delivering development sensitive to its context o enhancing the sense of safety and security within and beyond developments

  • Economic Value of Urban Design [rationale for government intervention in promoting good urban design]

    based upon issues on equity and unequal distribution of wealth

    economic efficiency, prevention of market failures

    welfare of society health and environmental impacts

    investments in regeneration to reverse physical and social decay, consequently reversing

    economic decline. Returns on investments would be:

    o economic job creation, business formation, market renewal

    o social improved community facilities, health,

    o environmental sustainability, health

    Economic benefits Social benefits Environmental benefits

    Strong evidence of relationship to design

    Provides land savings and better efficiency in the use of space

    Utilizes infrastructure more effectively

    Attracts additional visitors and activity

    Helps achieve greater efficiency in use of resources

    Improves natural surveillance and security

    Increases choice and access to facilities and amenities

    Better meets the needs of users

    Encourages greater use of public space

    Increases participation in community and cultural activities

    Lowers use of car for local trips

    Encourages walking and cycling

    Evidence of relationship to design

    Increase viability of local facilities and businesses

    Positive impact on the image of an area

    Increases commercial property values

    Improves staff productivity and satisfaction

    Reduces whole life costs, including management and security costs

    Improves long-term economic performance of an area

    Enhances corporate image/brand

    Promotes greater levels of physical activity

    Increases diversity and duration of use of public space

    Helps to improve social relations and cohesion

    Enhances convenience

    Encourages commitment to undertaking further improvements

    Improves sense of personal safety

    Positive impact on physical and mental

    Reduces harmful emissions and pollutants

    Improved energy efficiency and sustainability

    Reduces reliance on vehicular transport

    Lowers level of energy consumption

  • Contributes to area revitalization/regeneration

    Improves business performance and competiveness

    Increases residential property values

    Leads to greater land values

    Increases vitality of local businesses


    Reduces levels of crime and fear of crime

    Helps to improve patient recovery rates

    Increases sense of community

    Assists in fostering social engagement and participation

    Costs of good design

    o more challenging or complicated building format height/massing

    o increased specification of construction and finish materials

    o more sophisticated or complex construction methods

    o higher environmental standards and better environmental performances

    o more open spaces or streets within the scheme

    o more or better infrastructure

    o time to get design right

    o skills namely the cost of using suitably qualified designers

    o cultural change and initial time costs as developers leave their comfort zones

    Beneficiaries of good design

    o Investors

    returns on investments

    occupier demand

    o Developers

    investors attracted

    company image

    returns on investments

    o Designers



    o Occupiers

    better performance

    impression clients/guests

    health & satisfaction

    o Everyday users/society


  • new & retained jobs

    better environment

    o Public authorities

    meeting obligations

    ripple effect


    (Please refer to the Activity Guide posted in the e_group)