Quality Management - AOI Juran: The Trilogy of Quality Management •Quality Planning •developing

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  • Quality Management

  • Definition of Quality:

    • Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.

    • Some goals of quality programs include: • Fitness for use. (Is the product or service capable of

    being used?) • Fitness for purpose. (Does the product or service meet

    its intended purpose?) • Customer satisfaction. (Does the product or service

    meet the customer's expectations?) • Conformance to the requirements. (Does the product

    or service conform to the requirements?)

  • Quality Management Processes

    • Quality Planning

    • Quality Assurance

    • Quality Control

  • Quality Planning

    • The process of identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them.

    • Input includes: Quality policy, scope statement, product description, standards and regulations, and other process Output.

    • Methods used: benefit / cost analysis, benchmarking, flowcharting, and design of experiments

    • Output includes: Quality Management Plan, operational definitions, checklists, and Input to other processes.

  • Quality Assurance

    • The process of evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.

    • Input includes: Quality Management Plan, results of quality control measurements, and operational definitions.

    • Methods used: quality planning tools and techniques and quality audits.

    • Output includes: quality improvement.

  • What is Quality Assurance?

    • Quality Assurance (QA) is a process driven approach, it is a process to monitor and improve existing quality processes.

    • It is a process of verifying whether the software product or services meets or exceeds the customer expectations.

    • It ensures that the product or services are developed or implemented on agreed standards.

    • Quality assurance ensures that the processes designed for the product development and services are effective enough to meet the objectives.

    • It prevents software defects/errors.

  • Quality Assurance

    • Quality assurance is about engineering “processes“that assure quality

    • The keyword to pay attention to is “processes”.

    • QA extends far beyond what we call the ‘software testing team’. The goal is to develop high quality products in the most efficient way, and it cannot be achieved by testing alone.

  • Quality Assurance

    • Defects occur because something somewhere did not happen the way it needed to.

    • Testing might help in detecting those defects, but not in avoiding them.

    • A defect once fixed cannot ensure that it won’t occur again, even if the root cause is found. The process or the system that allowed that defect to occur is what needs to be re-engineered, and this is what is called quality assurance.

  • Quality Assurance

    • Everyone who is involved in the end to end development process, including analysts, developers, testers, managers etc., is an important player in assuring quality.

    • In fact,QA might not involve testing at all.

  • Quality Assurance

    • If a company wanted to bring down its defects per million ratios, would testing alone be able to help achieve this goal?

    • The answer is no, because in practice, not every defect can be found and fixed.

    • However, if the processes that go into developing a product were reviewed and best practices were implemented, the load on testing team is likely to reduce.

    • It is for this reason a lot of auditors focus on the processes were followed rather than focusing on the amount of testing an organization does.

  • Quality Control

    • The process of monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance.

    • Input includes: work results, Quality Management Plan, operational definitions, and checklists.

    • Methods used include: inspection, control charts, pareto diagrams, statistical sampling, flowcharting, and trend analysis.

    • Output includes: quality improvements, acceptance decisions, rework, completed checklists, and process adjustments

  • What is quality control?

    • Quality Control is concerned with the software product being developed. It measures and controls the quality of the software as it is being developed.

    • Quality control system provides routine checks to ensure that the software is being developed correctly without errors.

    • The Quality Control system identifies and addresses product errors/defects.

    • Quality Control ensures that the final product is error free and satisfactory.

    • Quality Control (QC) is often referred to as testing

  • Quality Control

    • Quality control is a set of “activities” that need to be performed in order to detect problems during production and before the product goes live.

    • These activities ensure that final deliverable meets the specifications and quality standards set by the organization.

    • QC often includes peer reviews, “testing”, code reviews etc.

  • Quality Control

    • In theory, quality control can be achieved with minimal testing.

    • For example, a thorough review of source code and checks for known previously problems can reduce the possibility of defects and might be enough to meet the quality standards set by the organization.

    • However in most cases, testing is the most important activity for quality control, but it is not the ‘only’ activity.

  • Quality Control

    • Quality control is extremely important for ensuring that applications are bug free and meet the specifications and requirements, but QC might not always be the most efficient ways of ensuring quality.

    • This is where Quality Assurance plays its role. But it is a concept that is often misunderstood by even the most experienced professions

  • What is verification?

    • Verification represents static testing techniques.

    • Verification ensures that the software documents comply with the organizations standards, it is static analysis technique.

    • Verification answer's the question “Is the Software build according to the specifications”.

  • Verification techniques

    • Feasibility reviews Requirements reviews Technical Reviews Walk through Inspections Formal reviews Informal reviews Peer reviews Static Code Analysis

  • What is software validation?

    • Validation represents dynamic testing techniques.

    • Validation ensures that the software operates as planned in the requirements phase by executing it, running predefined test cases and measuring the output with expected results.

    • Validation answers the question “Did we build the software fit for purpose and does it provides the solution to the problem”.

    • Validation is concerned with evaluating the software, component or system to determine it meets end user requirements.

  • Validation techniques

    • Unit testing

    • Integration testing

    • System testing

    • Integration testing

  • Major Approaches to Quality and QM • Deming

    • Juran

    • Crosby

    • TQM

    • Six Sigma

    • ISO 9000

  • W Edwards Demming on Quality

    • Quality is an attribute of a product or service that can only be defined by the customer.

    • Because of this its meaning is relative • Quality or lack of it is one of the outcomes of the

    specific business process that produces a product or service

    • Quality is produced by proper execution of such a process

    • The job of quality management is to provide the system and the leadership to facilitate such proper execution

  • Joseph M. Juran: On Quality

    • Quality is “fitness for use”

    • Balance between product features and products free from deficiencies

    • Features must meet customer expectations

    • Absence of deficiency is as essential as desired features in producing customer satisfaction

    • So the ultimate test of quality is fitness for use by customers as reflected by customer satisfaction

  • Juran: The Trilogy of Quality Management • Quality Planning

    • developing a process to achieve goals involving customer satisfaction

    • Quality Control • holding onto gains, controlling variation,preventing waste

    • Quality Improvement • lowering cost of poor quality achieving innovation in performance

  • Philip B. Crosby: Quality

    • Conformance to requirements

    • Must be defined in measurable terms and expressed as a clear target

    • Either present or not present

    • The Cost of Quality (COQ) = Price of Conformance (