Recovery of value from meat processing streams - .Recovery of value from meat processing streams

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  • Recovery of value from meatprocessing streams

    Anne Maria MullenTeagasc Food Research Centre Ashtown, Ashtown, Dublin 15

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Average live weight -~550kg

    Boned meat ~ 220kg(40%)

    Average live weight 18-55 kg

    Boned meat 40-50%

    Average live weight -~90kg

    Boned meat ~ ~57kg(64%)

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Steps to control &optimiseChilling regime

    Aitch bone hangingPostmortem ageing

    Hot boningElectrical stimulation

    Intrinsic valueFormulation

    Breeding indicesfor eating quality

    Steps to optimiseutilisation and value?

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Waste from processing chain

    BEEF

    263kg/head

    SHEEP

    19.3kg/head

    PIG

    19.3kg/head

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Waste/secondary products

    Edible offal and edible fats

    Bones (soups buttons bone meal)

    Blood (human and animal consumption, pharmaceutical& food additives emulsifiers, stabilisers, clarifiers,nutritional additives)

    Hide, feet, hair etc

    Inedible offal, fats

    SRM etc

    Current uses edible, rendering, landspread plus somehigher value

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Closer look at some by-productsand higher value applications

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Higher value opportunities

    Process by-product to extract or generatehigher value co-products

    Proteins with techno-functionality ofinterest to the food and beverage sector

  • Techno-functional activity

    Solubility

    Emulsification

    Foaming

    Gelling

    Water binding

    Protease inhibition

    Protein

    Molecular size

    Charge

    Amino acids present

    Binding with lipids etc

    Lipids

    Other small molecules,ingredients

    Processing conditions

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Higher value opportunities

    Process by-product to extract or generatehigher value co-products

    Proteins with techno-functionality ofinterest to the food and beverage sector

    Functional lipids

    Pet food applications nutraceuticals etc

    Sports/nutrition

    Cosmetics

    Biomedical collagen for tissue scaffolds

    Biomedical bioactive elements biomolecules, peptides, lipids

  • Blood

    5-7% total body weight. ~ 19% protein.

    ~65% plasma (6-7% protein)

    ~35% cellular (~35% protein).

    Plasma: albumin, globulins, fibrinogen

    Cellular erythrocytes (RBC Haemoglobin (Hg) mainprotein), leukocytes (white 3 types neutrophil, eosinophil,basophil) and platelets.

    Cells enzymes protein and other organic and

    inorganics.

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Blood utilisation: food

    Solubility

    Solubility%

    pH , ionic strength etc

    Plasma 75-100 Good across 3-8, optimal 4

    Serum 70-90 pH3-8, optimal pH8

    Albumin 70-100 Across 3-8, only small ionic strength effect

    Globulins 40-90* Depends very much on pH and ionic strength

    Fibrinogen

  • Other uses of blood Life Sciences, diagnostic, biotech applications.

    Compounds with higher value medical applications E.g. thrombin (EC 3.4.21.5) and plasmin, Hemopure, fibrinogen.

    Bioactive compounds: wide range antihypertension, enhancement of mineral

    absorption/bioavailability, immunomodulatory

    Pet and livestock feed Lysine supplement, vitamin, nutritional. Porcine/bovine plasma

    benefical to young pig performance 1st week after weaning IgG main contributory factor.

    Fats: cosmetic, rubber and plastic polymerisation, lubricants,biodiesel

    Haemoglobin protein, heme iron polypeptide, colour. Colour and flavour can be problematic

  • Australia

    BSA technical and diagnostics

    IgG Functional food, veterinary,technical diagnostic

    Thrombin medical device therapeutics

    Hg Veterinary/Animal/Pet,Technical/diagnostic, Nutraceutical

    Return on investment 2-5years

    Petfood nutraceutical of particularinterest

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Connective tissue

    Support; Signaling; Nutrient flow.

    Very diverse tissue: cells with abundant extracellularcellular matrix (ECM).

    ECM: collagens, proteoglycans, elastin etc.

    Collagen: most predominant protein in body (~30% totalprotein). 27 variants. Glycine rich, proline and leucine Fibrous = type I, II, III, V

    Bone Type I: Cartilage Type II: Skin Type III V.

    Proteoglycans (PGs)

    Protein core, shorter oligosaccharides, longer GAGchains (e.g. chondoitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate,heparan sulphate, keratin sulphate.). Aggrecan =largePGs. Hyaluronic acid nonsulphated.

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Biomedical - can assist in wound repair,tissue scaffolds

    Cosmetic uses collagen, hydrocolloids

    Gelatin food, pharma etc

    Nutraceuticals proteoglycans

    Added to myofibrillar proteins can bringsome benefit to water trapping in gels.

    Connective tissue

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Pig05049

    Author: ChristienMeindertsma

    Parts of pig: maketheir way into at least185 non-porkproducts, from bulletsto artificial hearts.

    Includes ammunition,medicine, photopaper, heart valves,brakes, chewing gum,porcelain, cosmetics,cigarettes, conditionerand even bio diesel.

  • DailyMail, Bullets, bread and beer,tambourines and toothpaste... and the 180other things you can to do with a pighttp://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1217794/From-bullets-bread-beer-tambourines-

    toothpaste--plus-180-things-pig.html#ixzz2sMWQgZF7

    3 October 2009

    180 other things you can do with a pig

  • Challenges

    Legislation

    Variability optimising functionality, preventingunwanted effects e.g. bitterness. Understand driversof yield

    Efficacy

    Toxicity, bioavailability

    Scale or lack of (collaborate/partnership)

    Freedom to operate

    Consumer attitudes

    Environmental issues associated with newprocessing

    . Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Progress to date

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Extraction of Protein from Lung

    Protein FunctionalityGelling quality of protein comparesfavourably to blood plasma and egg white 1

    Emulsifying capacity also comparesfavourably to Na-caseinates 1

    Gelling qualities (Least gelationconcentration) compared to favourably toproteins isolated form legume sources2

    (Selmaine, D. 2007 1: Lynch, S. 2013 2)

  • Can we generate bioactive peptides from offaland low value meat?

    Antioxidant activity assays:DPPH, TBARS, metal chelatingassay, etc

    Antimicrobialactivity assays

    AntihypertensionACE-I assay

    Synthesis of thecharacterised peptidesto confirm bioactivities

    Characterisation of peptidic contents of activefractions: MALDI-ToF, ESI-Q-Tof, Edmandegradation

    Ultra-filtration(10, 5, 3, 1 kDa MWCO)

    Enzyme hydrolysis Pepsin, Alcalase, pronaseE, collagenase, protease from Bacillus subtilis,papain, trypsin, bromelain, thermolysin,Neutrase

    BY-PRODUCTS

    Purification steps:Fractionation steps:

    Di Bernardini et al., 2011

    Peptides displaying antioxidantand ACE inhibitory activity

    Generated fromLung, Liver & Brisket

  • Australian enzymecompany

    EI

    Hydrolysing fish and meatby-products

    Three layers/phases Fat

    Soluble protein

    Residue/insoluble

    Demonstration activity

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • ReValueProtein

    FIRM project lead by Ashtown Partners = UCC, UCD, NUIG, Shannon ABC/ITTralee

    Multidisciplinary Techno-functional, sports/nutrition, biomedical,

    bioactivity

    Variety of raw materials Lung, liver, heart, tendons, cook-out, thaw loss

    Establish flow process Novel processes, pilot scale

    Consumer attitudes Commercialisation strategy

    Anne Maria Mullen, Waste not Want not, Teagasc Ashtown, 2014

  • Task 1 Reviewing current practicesand associated legislation

    Task 2 Describing & characterizingraw materials and co-products

    Task 3. Processing design:techno-functional and nutritive properties

    Task 5.Evaluating techno-functional attributesat fundamental level and in real food systems

    Task 4. Processing design: bio-activecompounds: cardiac and mental health, tissueengineering and regenerative medicine applications

    Task 6. Evaluating health promoting properties,low molecular weight components,iron bioavailability

    Task 7. Bio-functional evaluation: bioactivity/bioavailability, tissue engineering &regenerativemedicine applications

    Task 8. Novel technologies to optimise processing

    Task 9. Scale-up of selected processing

    Pillar 1Characterisation

    Pillar 2Processing ofsource material

    Pillar 3Applications

    Pillar 2Processing ofsource material

    Task

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  • Global companies:

    USA

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