RECYCLED MATERIALS AS BACKFILL FOR MECHANICALLY RECYCLED MATERIALS AS BACKFILL FOR MECHANICALLY STABILIZED

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  • RECYCLED MATERIALS AS BACKFILL FOR MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH WALLS

    by

    Ali Soleimanbeigi, Ph.D., P.E., Research Associate

    University of Wisconsin-Madison soleimanbeig@wisc.edu; (608) 444-3460

    William J. Likos, Ph.D., Professor (Principal Investigator)

    University of Wisconsin-Madison likos@wisc.edu; (608) 890-2662

    Burak F. Tanyu, Ph.D., Assistant Professor

    George Mason University btanyu@gmu.edu (703) 993-5621

    Ahmet H. Aydilek, Ph.D., Professor

    University of Maryland-College Park aydilek@umd.edu; (301) 405-2692

    Graduate Student

    Paulo Florio, M.Sc. Candidate University of Wisconsin-Madison

    April 2016

    Recycled Materials Resource Center University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Madison, WI 53706 USA

    mailto:aydilek@umd.edu

  • Table of Contents PREFACE ...................................................................................................................................... 1 1. RECYCLED MATERIALS.................................................................................................. 2

    1.1. Common Types of Recycled Materials ................................................................................ 2

    1.1.1. Production Rates ............................................................................................................ 3 1.1.2. Applications ................................................................................................................... 4

    1.1.3. Engineering Properties .................................................................................................. 4

    1.1.4. Variability of Engineering Properties ............................................................................ 7

    1.2. Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) Walls ....................................................................... 8 1.2.1. MSE Wall Applications ................................................................................................. 9

    1.2.2. MSE Wall Components ............................................................................................... 11

    1.2.2.1. Selected Backfill ................................................................................................... 11

    1.2.2.2. Reinforcements ..................................................................................................... 12 1.2.2.3. Load Transfer Mechanism .................................................................................... 14

    1.2.2.4. Soil-Reinforcement Interface Properties............................................................... 14

    1.2.3. Design Specifications and Criteria .............................................................................. 17

    1.2.3.1 Stability Criteria ..................................................................................................... 17 1.2.3.2. Geosynthetic Specifications .................................................................................. 22

    1.2.3.2. Selected Backfill Specifications ........................................................................... 24

    1.2.4. MSE Wall Design Procedure ....................................................................................... 26

    1.2.4.1 Project Parameters ................................................................................................. 26 1.2.4.2. Wall Embedment and Reinforcement Length....................................................... 26

    1.2.4.3. Defining Nominal Loads, Load Combinations and Load Factors ........................ 27

    1.2.4.4. Evaluating Sliding, Limiting Eccentricity, and Bearing Capacity ........................ 27

    1.2.4.5. Evaluating Settlement ........................................................................................... 27

    1.2.4.6. Selection of Reinforcement ................................................................................... 28 1.2.4.7. Defining Critical Slip Surface ............................................................................... 28

    1.2.4.8. Defining Unfactored Loads................................................................................... 28

    1.2.4.9. Vertical Layout of Reinforcements ....................................................................... 28

    1.2.4.10. Calculation of Factored Tensile Forces in the Reinforced Layers ...................... 28 1.2.4.11. Calculation of Soil Reinforcement Resistance ................................................... 29

    1.2.4.13. Selection of the Number of Soil Reinforcement Elements at Each Level .......... 29

  • 1.2.4.14. Internal Stability with Respect to Pull-out Failure ............................................. 29

    1.2.5. MSE Walls and Recycled Materials ............................................................................ 30

    1.2.5.1. Selection of Recycled Material for Backfill ......................................................... 30 1.2.5.2. Selection of Geosynthetic Reinforcements ........................................................... 32

    2. BENEFICIAL USE FRAMEWORK .................................................................................... 33 2.1. Beneficial Use of Recycled Materials as MSE Wall Backfill ............................................ 33 2.2. Limitations of Recycled Materials as Backfill Aggregates ................................................ 33

    2.3. Geosynthetically Reinforced MSE Walls: Failure Modes and Case Histories .................. 34

    2.3.1. Failure Modes .............................................................................................................. 34

    2.3.2. Case Histories .............................................................................................................. 35

    2.3.2.1. Snailback Geotextile Shotcrete Wrapped Face Wall, Siskiyou National Forest, Oregon, 1974...................................................................................................................... 35 2.3.2.2. Propped Panel Geogrid Wall, London, Ontario, 1989 .......................................... 36

    2.3.2.3. Devils Punch Bowl Wrapped Face Geogrid Wall, Devils Punch Bowl State Park, Oregon, 1982...................................................................................................................... 37

    2.3.2.4. Tanque Verde Geogrid Concrete Panel Wall, Tucson, Arizona, 1984 ................. 38

    2.3.2.5. Tower Oaks Residential MSE wall failure, Rockville, Maryland, 2003 (Mahmood 2009) .................................................................................................................................. 39

    2.3.2.6. Segmental Block MSE Wall Failure, Southwestern Virginia, 2001 (Scarborough 2005) .................................................................................................................................. 40

    2.3.2.7. Segmental Block MSE Wall Deformation, Eastern Tennessee, 2001 (Scarborough 2005) .................................................................................................................................. 42

    3. MATERIALS AND METHODS ........................................................................................... 43 3.1. Recycled Aggregates and Geosynthetic Reinforcements ................................................... 43

    3.1.1. Index Properties ........................................................................................................... 43 3.1.1.1. Recycled Concrete Aggregate............................................................................... 43

    3.1.1.2. Recycled Asphalt Pavement ................................................................................. 44

    3.1.2. Geosynthetic Reinforcements ...................................................................................... 46

    3.2. Laboratory Tests ................................................................................................................. 50

    3.2.1. Large-Scale Triaxial Tests ........................................................................................... 50 3.2.2. Large-Scale Interface Direct Shear Tests .................................................................... 51

    3.2.3. Pull-out Tests ............................................................................................................... 52

    3.2.4. Temperature-Controlled Creep Tests .......................................................................... 54

    3.2.5. Long-Term Filtration and Associated Pore Size Evaluation Tests .............................. 57

  • 4. RESULTS ................................................................................................................................ 60 4.1. Index Properties .................................................................................................................. 60

    4.1.1. Grain Size Distribution and Gradation Indices............................................................ 60

    4.1.2. Specific Gravity and Absorption ................................................................................. 61

    4.1.3. Compaction Characteristics ......................................................................................... 61

    4.2. Large Scale Triaxial Test Results ....................................................................................... 63 4.2.1. RCA .........................................................