REGIONAL ASSOCIATIONS & POLITICS of COOPERATION Latin America

  • View
    212

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • Slide 1
  • REGIONAL ASSOCIATIONS & POLITICS of COOPERATION Latin America
  • Slide 2
  • Slide 3
  • Slide 4
  • EARLY MOVEMENT FOR A SPANISH AMERICAN ASSOCIATION Breakup of four vice-royalties of Spanish American empire into eighteen separate states Desire of the eighteen for self identity tempered by security concerns Four congresses held between 1826 and 1865
  • Slide 5
  • Early Spanish American Congresses and Conferences Congress of Panama (June/July 1826) Treat from Holy Roman Empire First Lima Congress of Lima (December 1847- March 1848) Preoccupation with U.S. war against Mexico Continental Congress (Chile 1856) Concern with U.S. adventures in Central America Second Lima Conference (November 1864- March 1865) Concern over French intervention in Mexico
  • Slide 6
  • CONTEMPORARY INTEGRATION MOVEMENTS Followed in the aftermath of World War II Economic efforts predominated Desire to reduce the impact market fluctuations associated with free trade United Nations ECLA central institution pushing Latin American Free Trade Association Successes of European integration reinforced desire for regional economic integration
  • Slide 7
  • CONTEMPORARY INTEGRATION MOVEMENTS : Problems Wide disparities in: Size Levels of development Rate of growth of different economies Level of development Rates of economic growth Disparities exacerbated by national rivalries and competing ideologies Sub-regional associations predominated in practice
  • Slide 8
  • INTEGRATION IN THE CIRCUM- CARIBBEAN Organization of Central American States (ODECA) Founded in 1951 Rendered moribund by intra-regional Central American conflicts after 1979 Central American Common Market (fate similar to ODECA) 1991 Central American Integration System Revived integration efforts in wake of regional peace process
  • Slide 9
  • CARIBBEAN INTEGRATION Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) 1968 Goal free trade to eliminate tariffs and quotas on each others goods 15 Full members & 5 Associate members Map of CARICOM with full members states highlighted in green, associate members in lime green, and observers in pistachio
  • Slide 10
  • ORGANIZATION OF EASTERN CARIBBEAN STATES Seven small Commonwealth Caribbean Island States U.S. invasion of Grenada (1983) deeply divided member states Divisions have faded
  • Slide 11
  • LATIN AMERICAN REGIONAL INTEGRATION: ALALC (LAFTA) Treaty of Montevideo (1960) Market area included most of South America plus Mexico Goal free trade area in which members eliminated tariffs of substantially all of their trade Conflict between the big three and everybody else Ceased to function by 1968
  • Slide 12
  • TRANSREGIONAL INTEGRATION: Andean Group (ANCOM) Cartegena Agreement signed in May 1969 Characteristics/goals Eliminate all trade barriers Supreme Organ: Mixed Commission of ambassadorial representatives Decision 24 statue attempting to control foreign investment
  • Slide 13
  • TRANSREGIONAL INTEGRATION: Andean Group (ANCOM) Ups and downs 1976 Chile withdrew 1981 fighting on border between Ecuador and Peru Revival in 1990s
  • Slide 14
  • TLATELOCO TREATY (Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America) Mexican initiative signed in 1967 Provisions (signatories pledge not to:) Develop, test or import nuclear weapons Establish safeguards in conjunction with International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Slide 15
  • TLATELOCO TREATY (Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America) Protocol #1 Countries with territories in L.A will not introduce nuclear weapons therein Ratified by all relevant parties except USA, France Protocol #2 pledges countries already possessing nuclear weapons not to use them or threaten to use them against signatories to the treaty
  • Slide 16
  • Resistance to Participation in Tlateloco by Latin American States Brazil and Chile ratified with reservation that it does not take force until all relevant parties have ratified Argentina signed but not ratified Cuba totally outside of Tlateloco
  • Slide 17
  • GAP IN TLATELOCO REGIME Does not unambiguously forbid peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE) If a state has PNE there are procedures for monitoring
  • Slide 18
  • Brazilian Ambiguity Toward Nuclear Technology Historic Brazilian rivalry with Argentina included a nuclear dimension in the 1970s Abandoned with the emergence of democratic governments in both countries 2003 - Minister of Mines of the LULA government publicly affirms the right of Brazil to retain nuclear technology of all types
  • Slide 19
  • Continental ECONOMIC INTEGRATION: MERCOSUR Created in 1991 Rooted in Brazil- Argentina Program for Integration and Cooperation (1986) Return of democracy to both countries Increase capability to compete with NAFTA Uruguay and Paraguay added Headquarters: in the city of Montevideo Uruguay
  • Slide 20
  • MERCOSUR/MERCOSUL Success during the 1990s but ended up favoring Brazil Treaded water during Argentine economic crisis of 2001/02 Importance increased after 2008 MERCOSUR (member states Map doesn't highlight Venezuela (full member pending on Paraguay's ratification).
  • Slide 21
  • UNASUR: Union of South American Nations Unin de Naciones Suramericanas
  • Slide 22
  • UNASUR THE SOUTH AMERICAN UNION OF NATIONS TREATY Based on a shared history Inspired by the Cusco, Brasilia, and Cochabamba Declarations Affirm determination to build identity Convinced unity will solve shared problems of the region Certain integration will strengthen the rule of law Confirming unlimited respect and indivisible human rights Chavez signing the UNASUR Treaty
  • Slide 23
  • Objectives of UNASUR Build integration and union in order to strengthen democracy Strengthen Political Dialogue Eradicate poverty and overcome inequality Universal literacy and access to education Sustainable energy integration Development of infrastructure Financial Integration Protection of Biodiversity Consolidation of South American identity Social Security and health services
  • Slide 24
  • Economic & Social Dimensions Economic Power Combination of countries GDPs would reach more than $2.3 trillion: 7 th in the world. Immigration policy and free movement of peoples (wave visa requirements) Greater recognition of indigenous peoples Multinational infrastructure projects.
  • Slide 25
  • Institutions The Bodies of UNASUR are: 1. The Council of Heads of State and Government 2. The Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs 3. The Council of Delegates 4. The General Secretariat UNASUR meeting ---------------------------------------------------------------- Chavez hands Obama "The Open Veins of Latin America at an OAS meeting
  • Slide 26
  • Basically. RATIFYING that fully functioning democratic institutions and the unrestricted respect for human rights are essential conditions for building a common future of peace, economic and social prosperity and for the development of integration processes among the Member States The South American Union of Nations Treaty
  • Slide 27
  • UNASUR goals for the Future Use culture as an expression to unify the regions peoples. Establish a common identity. Overcome ideological obstacles. Employment of knowledge, science, and technology.
  • Slide 28
  • Keys for UNASURs Potential Influence Success depends upon the shared interests of its members. Some nations have a greater stake in UNASUR than others. Venezuela Brazil Colombia
  • Slide 29
  • Freedom of the Press?? Organizational Commitment: defend the rights of democratically elected governments against media abuses Nevertheless, concerns about suppression of the press
  • Slide 30
  • Issue of US bases in Colombia Colombian special forces raid guerrilla base in Ecuador (2009) Strains relations with Ecuador and Venezuela U.S. with its bases in Colombia viewed as instigator Chavez uses UNASUR as a platform to attack the bases and US presence in South America Touts creation of peace bases in Venezuela counter to US military bases in Colombia facilitate peaceful talk between Colombians and Venezuelans Santos less hostile to Venezuela than his predecessor
  • Slide 31
  • UNASUR & National Interests Colombia fears being isolated from other South American states Venezuela - using the UNASUR to counterbalance the US in South America Brazil views UNASUR as forum to increase its influence in South America Argentina check on Brazil Bolivia UNASUR helps to guarantee its territorial integrity