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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND OCCUPATIONAL STRESS EXPERIENCED BY ENGLISH INSTRUCTORS IN

THE PREPARATORY SCHOOLS OF FIVE UNIVERSITIES IN ANKARA

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

BY

ERSN RAY SOYLU

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR

THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILISOPHY IN

THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES

SEPTEMBER 2013

Approval of the Graduate School of Social Sciences

Prof. Dr. Meliha AltunkDirector

I certify that this thesis satisfies all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy.

Prof. Dr. Ayhan Demir Head of Department

This is to certify that we have read this thesis and that in our opinion it is fully

adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of /Doctor of Philosophy.

Assist. Prof. Dr. Gke Gkalp Supervisor

Examining Committee Members

Prof. Dr. Sadegl Akbaba Altun (Bakent U, EDS)

Prof. Dr. Aye Demirbolat (Gazi U, EDS)

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yaar Kondak (METU, EDS)

Assist. Prof. Dr. Gke Gkalp (METU, EDS)

Assit. Prof. Dr. Evrim Baran (METU, EDS)

iii

I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I aldo declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work.

Name, Last Name: Ersin iray Soylu

Signature :

iv

ABSTRACT

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS EXPERIENCED BY ENGLISH INSTRUCTORS IN

THE PREPARATORY SCHOOLS OF FIVE UNIVERSITIES IN ANKARA

SOYLU RAY, Ersin

Ph.D., Department of Educational Sciences

Supervisor: Assist. Prof. Dr. Gke GKALP

September, 2013, 183 pages

Relationship between the organizational climate and occupational stress

experienced by English instructors in the Preparatory Schools of five universities in

Ankara was examined. Role of the administrator in either preventing or lessening the

occupational stress of the instructors related to his supportive or restrictive approach

was explored. In addition, role of the teachers behavior as being collegial or

indifferent, and its relationship with the occupational stress of the other teachers was

examined. 276 instructors working in the English departments of five universities

completed two questionnaires. The predictor variable was the organizational climate

with six subscales as supportive administrator, directive administrator, restrictive

administrator, collegial teacher, intimate teacher and indifferent teacher. It was

measured by the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) designed by Hoy and Tarter

(1997), and translated to Turkish by Ylmaz and Altnkurt (2013). The dependent

variable was occupational stress measured by the Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI)

designed by Fimian and Fastenau (1990), and translated to Turkish by Kzltepe

(2007). The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between a

supportive, and/or restrictive administer and the occupational stress of the

v

instructors. The results also showed that working with collegial, and/or indifferent

instructors had impact on the occupational stress of the instructors. The implications

of these findings were discussed and recommendations for further research were

made.

Keywords: Organizational Climate, Occupational Stress, Administrator, Instructor,

English Preparatory School

vi

Z

ANKARADAK BE NVERSTENN HAZIRLIK OKULLARINDA GREV

YAPAN NGLZCE RETM GREVLS/OKUTMANLARIN

ALGILADIKLARI STRES LE RGT KLM ARASINDAK LK

SOYLU RAY, Ersin

Doktora, Eitim Bilimleri Blm

Tez Yneticisi: Yrd. Do. Dr. Gke GKALP

Eyll 2013, 183 sayfa

Bu alma rgt iklimi ile ngilizce retim grevlisi / okutmanlarn i stresi

arasndaki ilikiyi aratrmak amac ile yaplm, yneticinin i stresini nlemede

veya azaltmadaki rol aratrlmtr. Buna ek olarak, meslektalar aras ibirliki

retmen davran ile umursamaz retmen davran da incelenmitir. almaya,

be universitenin ngilizce blmlerinde alan 276 retim grevlisi/okutman

katlm ve iki envanter doldurmulardr. almadaki bamsz deiken rgt

iklimi olup, Hoy ve Tarter (1997) tarafndan gelitirilen, Ylmaz ve Altnkurt (2013)

tarafndan Trkeye evirilen rgt klimi lei (TSI) ile llmtr. Baml

deiken olan i stresi ise Fimian ve Fastenau (1990) tarafndan gelitirilen, Kzltepe

(2007) tarafndan Trkeye evirilen Stresi Envanteri (TSI) ile llmtr. Elde

edilen sonular destekleyici ve/veya kstlayc bir ynetici ile retim

grevlisi/okutmanlarn i stresi arasnda bir iliki olduunu gstermitir. Sonular

ayn zamanda ibirliki ve/veya umursamaz retim grevlisi/okutmanlar ile

meslektalar arasnda i stresi ile ilgili bir iliki olduunu ortaya koymutur. Elde

edilen sonularn etkisi tartlm ve gelecekte yaplacak aratrmalar iin neriler

getirilmitir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: rgt klimi, Stresi, Ynetici, retim Grevlisi/Okutman,

ngilizce Hazrlk Okulu

vii

This dissertation is dedicated to my family; for my husband, who took on more than

his fair share to support me throughout this process, and for my son whose love has

always been encouraging and inspiring.

viii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

There are a lot of people I would like to express my thanks. More than

anything else, I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to my advisor Assist.

Prof. Dr. Gke Gkalp. She was always available and she guided me throughout

this process by sharing her expertise and by supporting me. This challenging study

could not have been completed without her contribution.

I would like to express my thanks to my dissertation committee members

Prof. Dr. Aye Demirbolat, Prof Dr. Sadegl Akbaba Altun, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yaar

Kondak, Assist. Prof. Dr. Evrim Baran and Assist. Prof. Dr. Gke Gkalp for

their invaluable suggestions.

My special appreciation goes to Prof. Seda Banu Aknc, Assist. Prof. Tarik

Kara, and Dr. Gven zkaya. I have learnt a lot from them, and from the invaluable

resources they provided for the statistical analyses in my study.

I wish to give my grateful thanks to my family and and my husbands, who

have always encouraged and supported me.

I would also like to extend my thanks to my friends and colleagues who have

heartened me during this seriously determined effort.

ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PLAGIARISM ................................................................................................................ iii

ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................... iv

Z .................................................................................................................................... vi

DEDICATION ................................................................................................................ vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................... viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................ ix

LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................... xii

LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................... xiii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ....................................................................................... xiv

CHAPTER

1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................... 1

1.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Background to the study ................................................................................. 2

1.2.1 Theoretical Perspectives about Organizational Climate ....................... 4

1.2.2 Theoretical Perspectives about Occupational Stress ............................. 5

1.3 Purpose of the Study ...................................................................................... 6

1.4 Significance of the Study ................................................................................ 8

1.5 Definition of Terms ...................................................................................... 12

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................................................................ 14

2.1 Organizational Climate ................................................................................ 14

2.1.1 School Climate ..................................................................................... 18

2.1.2 Organizational Climate in Higher Educatio