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Renaissance, Reformation, & Exploration 1400-1600 By Sam Irving

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  • Renaissance,Reformation,&Exploration1400-1600By Sam Irving

  • Renaissance DefinedBIG Idea: During the Renaissance, Western Europeans experienced a profound cultural awakening, signaling the beginning of modern times.

  • Renaissance: Rebirth of interest in classical ideas and cultures.What are the classical cultures?Ancient Greek knowledge was preserved in the Byzantine and Muslim empires.

  • HumanismFocused on Liberal Arts. Philosophy, History, Art, LiteratureIndividualism: emphasized the dignity and worth of the individual.Man is the measure of all things.Renaissance Man: individual skilled in many areas.

  • Was religion important in Medieval life?Secular: focus on worldly, not religious themes.Laypeople, not monks, became the leading intellectuals.Worldly immortality via art and literature.

  • Think back to our last unit.What social changes occurred during the late middle ages that broke down feudalism?What specific event encouraged new learning in Europe at the beginning of the 13th Century (the 1200s)?

  • Italybirthplace of the Renaissance.Why?GeographyAt a trading crossroadClassical past was visibly present in Italy.

  • New Social OrderUpper: merchants and bankers replaced the landed nobility.Banking & checks replaced heavy coins.

    Middle: shop-keepers and artisans.

    Lower: rural peasants and poor urban workers.

  • Assignment/ActivityNo homework!

  • Renaissance Masters & Masterpieces

  • A return to Greek and Roman styles.

  • ArchitectureBrunelleschis Cathedral of Florence

  • Michelangelos David

  • PaintingPerspective, giving depth.EmotionsFrescos: painting on damp plaster.

  • Da Vincis The Last Supper

  • Da Vincis Mona Lisa

  • Raphaels School of Athens

  • Michelangelos Sistine Chapel

  • The Renaissance Man

  • ActivityVisit the Irving Museum of Renaissance Art.Look around and select your favorite piece of Renaissance artwork.Explain how it reflects Renaissance themes and/or styles.Tell me why you like it.

  • Renaissance WritingBIG Idea: New printing technology allowed Renaissance ideas to spread.

  • From parchment, or animal skin, to paper in 12th century Europe.From China

  • A medieval book created by a monk.

  • How did the moveable type printing press help the Renaissance spread?

    How did movable type help the Renaissance spread?

  • The Printing PressInvented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 1450s.Used individual, moveable type.

  • Books could be made cheaper and faster, and thus became more abundant in Europe.

  • LiteratureMachiavelli The Prince (Well read some of this.)

    William Shakespeare

  • Whos this guy?

  • ELT: Give examples of how philosophical beliefs have influenced various aspects of society throughout history.

    Why are politicians lying liars?

    Lets take a look at The Prince by Machiavelli.

  • The Protestant ReformationBIG Idea: In 16th Century (1500s) Germany, a desire for church reform led to a new form of Christianity called Protestantism.

  • What was religion like in medieval Europe?

  • Martin LutherGerman monk/professor

    Justification by faith: Luthers concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation, or acceptance into heaven.

  • Whats going on here?

  • Luthers Protest AgainstIndulgences: certificates sold by the Catholic Church to reduce or cancel punishment for a persons sin.

  • Oct. 31st, 1517 Luther posts his 95 Theses.

  • Luthers 95 Theses (1517)Criticized indulgences and other church corruption.Copies spread fast due to movable type.Popular

  • Why was Germany, or the Holy Roman Empire, exceptional at this time?How could this political landscape have prevented the Holy Roman Emperor from silencing Luther?

  • I am bound by the Sacred Scriptures I have citedand my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not recant (take back) anything.Martin LutherIn 1521, the Pope excommunicates Luther as a heretic.Pope Leo X

  • Luthers other opinionsSupported the feudal social hierarchy.Luthers call for religious freedom led to peasant calls for freedom from feudalism.Lords violently put down peasant revolts and Luther sided with the lords.

    Virulent anti-SemiteLuthers anti-Semitic writings were reproduced by the Nazis.

  • LutheranismFirst protestant faith.Bible as the only source of religious truth.Readings during religious services.Catholicism stressed good works and church rituals.

  • AssignmentELT: Give examples of how religion has influenced aspects of society throughout history.Lets take a look at the 95 Theses.

  • The Spread of ProtestantismBIG Idea: The Reformation spread throughout Europe (1500s) and began to divide.

  • CalvinismStrict code of conduct.All powerful, All knowing God.Predestination: God determines the fate of every person in advance.

  • Whats going on?

  • AnabaptistsWhat does baptism symbolize?

    Only baptized adultsFree and informed decision

    Separation of church and stateFled to North America (1600s)Baptists, Mennonites, and Amish

  • Anglicanism (a.k.a. The Church of England)Henry VIII split with the Catholic Church when the pope refused him a divorce.A blend of Protestantism and Catholicism.

  • The Catholic ReformationCouncil of Trent 1545

    Ended indulgences.

    Valued sacraments and the bible.

  • Berninis St. Peters Basilica in Rome

  • Laocoon by El Greco

  • ActivityELT: Trace the history of how principal world religions developed and spread.Show me the religions of Europe during the Renaissance geographically.Turn to page 424 in World History: The Human Experience.

  • In your journal, create and complete the chart above. Enter someone of your choosing in the ? row (you, a relative, etc.).

  • Exploration

    BIG Idea: 15th Century Europeans sought a better trade route to Asia, excluding Arab middlemen.

  • TechnologyEducated townspeople expanded upon classical knowledge to improve maps and ships.Cartographer: mapmakerPtolemys Grid System

  • CaravelMultiple-mastsTriangular SailsDrew little water

  • PortugalVasco da Gama pioneered a water route around Africa to India.Direct route to AsiaControlled the spice trade.

  • SpainColumbus attempts to sail west across the Atlantic to reach India.Reaches the Caribbean islands.Amerigo Vespucci later suggests Columbus discovered a new world

  • Spanish ConquistadorsUsed Guns, Germs, and Steel to conquer Native Americans and establish an empire.

    ,, &

  • Corts with Montezuma IIHernn Corts conquered the Aztecs.

  • Pizarro and AtahuallpaFrancisco Pizarro conquers the Inca.

  • Columbian ExchangeThe transatlantic exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between Europe, Africa, & Asia on one side, and the Americas on the other beginning in 1492.

  • Columbian Exchange Flow Chart

  • Slave TradeEmpires in the Americas used native, then African slave labor to grow crops.

    Purchased from African merchants.Increased warfare and depopulation in Africa.

  • Triangular: between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.

  • Est. 10-24 million enslaved Africans.1/5 died on the middle passage.

  • Assignment/ActivityELT: Analyze how forces of change have influenced societies throughout history.

    Lets learn more about the Columbian Exchange from the leading scholar in the field.

  • Commerce in Europe (1600s)BIG Idea: Overseas trade and the conquest of empires expanded Europes economy and formed the roots of modern capitalism.

  • Royal Power Did more trade occur during the Roman Empire or Feudal Europe? Why?Absolutism: monarchs had unlimited power.Divine Right: monarchs received their power from God.

  • Mercantilism: nations competed for wealth.Nations overpowered cities.Government banks replaced banking families.Tried to export more than they imported.?=

  • Commercial RevolutionGrowth of entrepreneurs, or profit-seeking business owners.A shift from the Guild mentality

    Joint-stock company: many people invested in an overseas venture.Shared the risks and profits.

  • Demographic (Population) ChangesPopulation doubled.From 55 million in 1450 to 100 million in 1650.Increased Urbanization.Merchants (businesspeople) prospered, Nobility declined.

  • AssignmentELT: Describe characteristics of specific economic systems and how these systems have existed in different ways at different times throughout history.

    Lets take a closer look at Joint-Stock Companies, the precursor to modern-day corporations.

  • Works CitedAtahuallpa and Pizarro. Private collection. Web. 26 Oct. 2009 .Bernini. Canopy above St. Peter's Tomb. St. Peter's Basilica, Rome. Web. 25 Oct. 2009
  • Caravel Image. 2008. Private collection. Web. 26 Oct. 2009 ."Columbus Voyage." Christopher Columbus and the Age of Exporation. World Book, Inc. 10 Aug. 2009 .da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. 1506. Muse du Louvre, Paris. Web. 18 Oct. 2009 .da Vinci, Leonardo. The Last Supper. 1498. Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. Web. 18 Oct. 2009 .da Vinci, Leonardo. Vitruvian Man. 1519. Private collection. Web. 18 Oct. 2009 .El Greco. Laocoon. 1614. Samuel H. Kress Collection, Washington, D.C. Web. 25 Oct. 2009 .Farah, Mounir A., and Andrea B. Karls. World History The Human Experience. New York: Glencoe/McGraw Hill, 1999. 402-50. Print.Flowers, David

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