Report on water resources and natural disasters (climate ... Meetings and Events... Walczykiewicz Tomasz

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  • The highest peak in the Carpathians - Gerlachovský Štít (The Gerlach mountain - 2655 m above sea level) - photograph by Jadwiga Czernecka Report on water resources and natural disasters (climate change) and flood risk mapping

    Institute of Meteorology and Water Management

    BRANCH OFFICE IN CRACOW Disclaimer:

    This publication has been produced by the Carpathian Project under the INTERREG III B CADSES Neighbourhood Programme and co-financed by the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the author(s) and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union, of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), of the Carpathian Convention or of the partner institutions. Presentation of material in this publication does not imply the expression of any opinion or view of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management.

    Cracow, October 2007

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    Authors:

    Walczykiewicz Tomasz

    Barszczyńska Małgorzata

    Biedroń Ilona

    Czernecka Jadwiga

    Kubacka Danuta

    Rataj Celina

    Paluszkiewicz Bartłomiej

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    Table of Contents

    1. STATUS OF WATERS IN CARPATHIANS................................................................................... 6 1.1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 6 1.2. Water policy ....................................................................................................................... 9 1.3. Natural hazards................................................................................................................ 10 1.4. New policy initiatives........................................................................................................ 10 1.5. General overview of the Carpathian waters .................................................................... 12

    2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION ON THE BASE OF THE CARPATHIAN ARC................................. 17 2.1. Situation of water resources in Carpathians.................................................................... 17

    2.1.1. The Baltic Sea Basin................................................................................................................. 17 2.1.1.1. Droughts and floods ........................................................................................................ 20 2.1.1.2. Water use ........................................................................................................................ 21

    2.1.2. The Black Sea Basin................................................................................................................. 22 2.1.2.1. Droughts and floods ........................................................................................................ 27 2.1.2.2. Water use ........................................................................................................................ 30

    2.1.3. The main lakes of the Carpathian region .................................................................................. 33 2.1.4. Transboundary groundwaters in the Carpathian Region........................................................... 38 2.1.5. Habitat and species protection areas........................................................................................ 39

    2.2. The water “reservoir” Carpathians - water tower for surrounding areas.......................... 40 2.3. Background data.............................................................................................................. 46

    2.3.1. Inhabitants ................................................................................................................................ 46 2.3.2. Annual precipitation .................................................................................................................. 49 2.3.3. Temperature ............................................................................................................................. 49 2.3.4. Land Cover ............................................................................................................................... 52

    3. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF PRESSURES AND IMPACTS ........................................................ 58 3.1. Water quality .................................................................................................................... 58

    3.1.1. Significant point sources and diffuse sources ........................................................................... 58 3.1.2. Risk of failure to reach environmental objectives ...................................................................... 60

    3.2. Hydromorphology ............................................................................................................ 70 3.3. Water quantity.................................................................................................................. 73

    3.3.1. Significant water abstractions ................................................................................................... 73 3.4. Management approaches to deal with flood, drought and water scarcity ...................... 77

    3.4.1. Management solutions.............................................................................................................. 77 3.4.2. Technical solutions ................................................................................................................... 80

    4. CLIMATE CHANGE-NATURAL HAZARDS................................................................................ 83 4.1. Predictable future pressures............................................................................................ 83 4.2. Trends in climate and their potential influence on water related natural hazards ........... 92

    5. SIGNIFICANT WATER MANAGEMENT ISSUES ....................................................................... 94 5.1. Water use......................................................................................................................... 94 5.2. Droughts and floods......................................................................................................... 98 5.3. Legal transposition of the EU policy .............................................................................. 101

    6. REFERENCE MATERIAL .......................................................................................................... 105

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    List of Figures Figure 1: The main rivers in the Carpathian region............................................................................... 13

    Figure 2: Carpathian Region on a background of European political map ........................................... 14

    Figure 3: River basins in the Carpathian Region .................................................................................. 15

    Figure 4: The Neusiedler See Lake – topography map. ....................................................................... 35

    Figure 5: The Neusiedler See Lake....................................................................................................... 35

    Figure 6: Transboundary groundwaters in the Carpathian Region ....................................................... 38

    Figure 7: Habitat and species protected areas in the Carpathian Region ............................................ 39

    Figure 8: The relief of the Carpathian Region ....................................................................................... 42

    Figure 9: Annual precipitation in the Carpathian Region....................................................................... 43

    Figure 10: Flow direction of main rivers in Carpathian Region: The Carpathians - water tower for

    surrounding areas.................................................................................................................................. 44

    Figure 11: Surface flow direction (slopes) in Carpathian region ........................................................... 45

    Figure 12: Population density in NUTS 3 in the Carpathian Region. .................................................... 47

    Figure 13: Population density in river catchments in the Carpathian Region. ...................................... 48

    Figure 14: Population density in main river basins in the Carpathian Region....................................... 48

    Figure 15: Annual precipitation in the Carpathian region ...................................................................... 50

    Figure 16 Seasonal a