RESEARCH ABOUT PRESENTATION WAY OF NEWS ABOUT DISABLED PEOPLE IN NATIONAL TURKISH NEWSPAPERS BECAUSE OF WORLD DISABILITY DAY
MA Student Ebru Karadeniz Istanbul University,Turkey
MA Student Z. Benan Dondurucu Istanbul University, Turkey
[email protected] Ebru KARADENIZ was born in 1988, in Samsun, graduated from Bafra Anadolu High School. She has graduated from Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Departmant of Astronomy and Space Science. She is a MA Students Student in Istanbul University, Communication Faculty, Department of Public Relations. Z. Benan DONDURUCU was born in 1987, in Istanbul, graduated from Mecidiyekoy Anadolu High School. She has graduated from Anadolu University, Communication Science Faculty, Department of Public Relations and Advertisement. She is a MA Student in Istanbul University, Communication Faculty, Department of Public Relations. Abstract
Disability is a general description for people whose movements senses or functions are limited because of physical or mental deformities. Presentation way of disability concept in Mass Circulation Media is an important variable for apprehending societys perception about disabled people. This research was done about presentation ways of disability news in national Turkish newspapers for conceiving 3 December World Disability Day effect, in 15 November- 15 December 2011 dates, in Turkey. In the first part of the study, disability news presentation ways literature was analysed . In this part, the disability news distribution according to subjects and numeric dispersal were abstracted. In the second part of the study, according to Turkish Press Announcement Association circulation data, the first 5 Turkish national newspapers which daily circulation rates are more than 100.000 were analyzed. In these newpapers , the disability news are abstracted with full enumaration according to the content analysis method. With in the context of this research, the presentation ways of disability concept in printed media was analysed according to news numeric distrubition in the selected newspapers, news types, news subjects distrubition and the presentation type of news for the all newspapers category and seperate categories for each newspapers. According to study findings, disability news numbers increased in the week which consists of 3 December Disability Day in all newspapers category. In this week, the presentation type of the disability news are mostly positive. According to this study findings, hero stereotype is the most common used disabled people stereotype in World Disability Week period. This finding shows us the press interest focuses on the disability subject in World Disability Day. Another important finding that we have reached with this study is news numeric distrubition differences about news subjects, news presentation types. This findings are discussed according to the newspapers general policy and press ethic. Key Words: Disability, 3 December World Disability Day, National Turkish Newspap
INTRODUCTION This study aims to answer the question of the presentation style of disability in Turkish media. The presentation style of disability a topic that attracts society and thus medias attention greatly. The streotypes and common presentation ways of disabled people in media has to be searched with extreme caution. Because mass circulation vehicles has a vital effect on the society perception about disability. In the first part of study for examining disabled and disability concepts methodologically. Disabled person is a person whose some actions, senses
and functions limited (Oxford Dictionary of English, 2003). Also, in this study handicapped concept was examined within the connection of disability concept. Media has three vital functions like inform, fun and education and a general concept which has visual and hearing vehicles. Because of mass media vehicles manipulative and vital effect, the presentation of disability concept in media has an important effect in Turkish society detection. When we evaluate the medias role and effectiveness in our daily life; the mass media vehicles are not just basic transfer tools. While the mass media tools transfer or shape an exist situation or event; follows a path which seperates the situation and selects one event eliminate the other events. (zerkan, 2001:88). In the first part of article, first disability and disability types are examined. After that, media, presses media and as a mass circulation vehicle newspaper are scrutinized with a literature search and content analysis method. The last part of this article, there will be interpretation about the presentation style of disability in pressed media. Disability and Handicapped Concepts Disabled person is a person whose some actions, senses and functions limited. (Oxford Dictionary of English, 2003).There is a methodologic difference in disability and handicapped concepts. In handicapped people definition, the most attentive point is the insufficiency which effects disabled persons lifes harmony in daily life. This description has similarity with the concept of movement, senses and functionsrestrictions in disability definition. However, disability concept defines a discomfort situation that contains a mental or physcial problem. In addition to this problem, disability concept includes a movement limitation because of social and architectural barriers. Disability Types In this research, the disability situation is examined physical, visual, hearing and mental disability sub-categories: 1.Physical Disability a) Disabled people who can not walk easily b)The disabled people who are dependent to the wheelchairs c)The people who have arms or hand disability. 2. Visual Disability a) People who has problems about seeing b) Blind People 3. Hearing Disability a) People who has problems about hearing b) Deaf People 4. Mental Disability (Aksz, 2001: 7-8)
As a part of this study, the presentation style about disability news between 15 November-15 December dates in national newspapers is aimed to be searched. Hypothesis 1: During November 15- December 15, 2011, in national newspapers, the number of the news about employment of disabled are more than that of the other news. Hypothesis 2: The number of the news about disabled in the newspaper Hurriyet are much more than that of the other examined. Hypotesis 3: The number of the news about disabled in the week that includes the World Disability Day December 3 has increased in compared with the number of the weeks between November 15- December 15, 2011. Methodology
In the first part of this study, for examining the presentation style of disability news in national press, the disability concept and media concept were researched.
In the second part of this study, because of 3 December World Disability Day, in 15 November-15 December 2011 dates, in national press, the news and the presentation way of these news which are connected with disability concept. In the last part of this study, the datas which are reached after this study were interpreted
In the selection process of the newspapers, the 2011 circulation rates of newspapers were examined according to Press and Declaration Association in Turkey. According to circulation average of the January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September and October months; the first 5 newspapers that daily circulation rates are more than 100.000 are selected to research in this study (www.big.gov.tr).
The order of these newspapers
NEWSPAPER NAME DAILY AVARAGE CIRCULATION 1) ZAMAN 992.000 2)POSTA 466.000 3)HRRYET 446.000 4)SABAH 353.000 5)HABERTRK 274.000
As a part of this research, the news about disability between 15 November- 15 December dates are collected and sequences according to press dates. With the content analysis method, the all newspaper which are in the scope of disability concept are examined by 2 researchers with full enumaration method. In the interpret of the datas and the validation of the research is enumerated with the comparision of all the news by 2 researchers.
A content analysis table is constituted for examining the disability news. According the this table, all disability news are studied content of the news, source of the news, subject of the news, the presentation style of the news, the location of the related people view and explanation, the celebrity usage in the news, the fundamental element of disability in the news
and the side element of disability in the news, photo usage in the news, the page and page range of the news and coloumn x centimeter ratio in the news categories. When the preparation process of the disability news, the 2003-2006 Years Disability News in Press study was used as a source and the disability news in October 2011 date was examined.
In this research, the news are examined in the national Turkish newspapers between 15 November-15 December dates. In the national pressed newspapers, the disability news were examined between 15 November- 15 December dates. The 5 national newspapers have more than 100.000 daily circulation rate were examined in this study.In the research, the local newspapers and the newspapers which broadcast online were not part of the study.
The Disability Concept in Media