Research Paper Technical Writing and Editing

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


<ul><li>1.Research Paper Technical Writing and Editing Increasing the chances of a research manuscript to be accepted for publication June 6, 2008 Dante P. Bornales, MD, MHPEd, FPNA Editor-in-chief, Philippine Journal of Neurology</li></ul><p>2. </p> <ul><li>Why think of publishing a research work? </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>intellectual curiosity contribute in the local andglobal health care delivery systems </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>disseminating information to the greatest number ofreadersto assure utilization in the healthsciences </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> publish or perish!!value of documenting oneswork </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>personal and professional growth </li></ul></li></ul><p>3. The Status of Neurology Research in the Philippines Collantes EV, PhilJNeurol vol 9 no 2 (Nov 2005) 740 submitted researches to the PNA (1989-2004) Only 10% were published (8.5% in various local journals; 1.5% international journals) 4. </p> <ul><li>The Status of Neurology Research in the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Collantes EV, PhilJNeurol vol 9 no 2 (November 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>740 total # ofsubmitted researches to the PNA (1989-2004):</li></ul><ul><li>Only 10% were published </li></ul><ul><li>(8.5% in various local journals; 1.5% international journals) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>lack enthusiasm/support to publish the research outputs? </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>quality of research materials? </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>lack of knowledge and rigorous technical training onresearch paper writing? </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><p>5. </p> <ul><li>Outline of this presentation: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the awareness of the PNA Fellows on the present status of the PhilJNeurol </li></ul><ul><li> where is our journal now? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Using the PhilJNeurol evaluation standards and the guidelines of the ICMJE, discuss the technical details of research paper writing and editing </li></ul><ul><li> what to look for in a manuscript for it to beworthy of publication </li></ul><ul><li>3.Enumerate some operating procedures on matters about duplication of publication </li></ul><p>6. </p> <ul><li>Choosing the right biomedical journal for the publication of researches: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>wide circulation, preferably beyond thelocal/regional geographical area</li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> always think big! </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> always go global </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>establishedpeer reviewsystem </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>published regularly </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>accepted and generally referenced </li></ul></li></ul><p>7. </p> <ul><li>PhilJNeurol </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>wide circulation, preferably beyond thelocal/regional geographical area</li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> always think big! </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> always go global </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>establishedpeer reviewsystem </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>published regularly </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>accepted and generally referenced </li></ul></li></ul><p>8. Philippine Journal of Neurology(PhilJNeurol) regularly published circulated locally and in the ASEAN region peer-reviewed journal with an established blind peerreview process published papers are uploaded in theWPRIM Uniform Requirements for ManuscriptsSubmitted to Biomedical Journals (International Committee of Medical Editors, ICMJE) 9. </p> <ul><li>Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>a project of theWHO Western Pacific Regional Officeincollaboration with several institutions in its member states</li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>this is the regions contribution to theGlobal Health Library (GHL) initiativewhich aims to extend to all - the benefits of the knowledge that is essential to the fullest attainment of health </li></ul></li></ul><p>10. </p> <ul><li>Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>WPRIM will be deployed and hosted with theindex mediciof other WHO Regions, at theGlobal Index Medicus portalunder theGlobal Health Library platform , where searches can be conducted individually or simultaneously through federated search engine </li></ul></li></ul><p>11. Western Pacific Region Index Medicus(WPRIM) Goal: The creation of an online index of medicaland health journals published in member statesof the WHO Western Pacific Region whichcanbe accessed on the internetthus ensuringglobal accessibilityof medical and healthresearchdone in the region . 12. WHO-WPRIM Philippine Focal Team PCHRD (February 2006) &gt;140 local medical and health journals 18 journals selected on the basis of regularity of issues and peer review process 13 journals were finally chosen to be included in the database uploading for WPRIM PhilJNeurolwas included 13. Philippine Journal of Neurology (PhilJNeurol) MOApartnership with the PCHRD 79 research articles and abstracts in the PhilJNeurol from 1991 to 2006 November are already uploaded in the WPRIM website database 14. How toincrease the chances of a research paper to be accepted for publication in a biomedical journal Preparing a manuscript for submission to a biomedical journal Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals(International Committee of Medical Journals Editors, ICMJE;updated Feb 2006) Title and authorship Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion and Conclusion References 15. What constitute a good title? fewest possible words thatadequately describe the contentsof the paper Common errors: too short too long poor syntax Title and Authorship 16. Analyze the evolution of this title: The effects of a neuroprotectant in Stroke Preliminary findings on the effects of a neuroprotectant in Stroke Preliminary findings on the effects of Citicholin on the size of ischemic penumbra incases of Stroke Preliminary findings on the effects of Citicholin on the size of ischemic penumbra incases of large-vessel ischemic stroke 17. Title and Authorship </p> <ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>most grammatical errors in titles are</li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>due to faulty word order </li></ul></li></ul><p> Alteration of mice non-transmissible encephalitis course induced by Newcastle disease virus 18. </p> <ul><li>Avoid: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>use of abbreviations </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>chemical formulae </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>hanging titles </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>questions </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>proprietary name of drugs </li></ul></li></ul><p> Use of interferon in chronic relapsing Multiple Sclerosis: Is it necessary? Title and Authorship 19. Title Page (ICMJE) 1. Title of the article 2. Author/s name (with the academic degree/s)and affiliation 3. Disclaimers 4. Corresponding author/s with the address forreprints 5. Source of support or grants 6. Word count Conflict of Interest Notification Pagea separate page 20. </p> <ul><li>Authorship </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in the research process </li></ul><ul><li>each author should have participated sufficientlyin thework represented by the article and ableto take responsibility for the intellectualcontent </li></ul><ul><li>participation solely in the collection of data (orevidence)does notjustify authorship </li></ul><p>(Rosales, R: Principles of Authorship; Research Center for the Health Sciences, UST) 21. </p> <ul><li>Authorship </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>each part of the contentof the paper andeach step that led to its publication must be attributable toat least one author </li></ul><ul><li>a. conception or design or analysis andinterpretation of the data, or both; </li></ul><ul><li>b. drafting the article or revising it for criticallyimportant content; </li></ul><ul><li>c. final approval of the version to be published </li></ul><p>(Rosales, R: Principles of Authorship; Research Center for the Health Sciences, UST) 22. </p> <ul><li>Authorship </li></ul><ul><li>Contributors who do not justify authorship </li></ul><ul><li>contributors may be named and their contributionmust be described in separate paragraph </li></ul><ul><li> advise </li></ul><ul><li> critical review proposal </li></ul><ul><li> data collection </li></ul><ul><li> participation in clinical trial </li></ul><ul><li> comments on the research contentfrom a senior staff of a </li></ul><ul><li>department </li></ul><p>23. Abstract Abstracts are the only substantive portion of the article indexed in many electronic databases, and the only portion many readers read!!!Authors need to be careful that the abstracts reflect the content of the article accurately.Unfortunately, many abstracts disagree with the text of the article (Pitkin RM et al, JAMA 1999). 24. </p> <ul><li><ul><li>length and structure vary by journal, should follow</li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>the title page </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>should not be more than 200 words </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>(some journals: not more than 250 words) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> structured form </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>should be factual presenting the reason for thestudy, main findings, and conclusions </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>3 to 10 key wordsideally should follow the</li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Medical Subjects Headings (MeSH) list of the</li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Index Medicus</li></ul></li></ul><p>Abstract 25. Sample structured Abstract Endovascular Coiling for Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Objective: To present the clinical outcome of 23 patients who underwentendovascular coiling for ruptured aneurysm in a local tertiary center. Methods: Chart review of all consecutive patients more than 18 years oldwith ruptured intracranial aneurysm admitted or co-managed by theSection of Neurology of a local tertiary hospital from August 2003 toJuly 2006 who underwent endovascular coiling. Results:Of the 154 patients with non-traumatic aneurysm SAH, only 25patients underwent endovascular coiling, but 2 were excluded because ofincomplete chart data.Demographic and clinical characteristics wereOf the 4 patients who died, 3 had pulmonary embolism. Conclusions: This study showed that: 1)Most (65%) of the patients withruptured intracranial aneurysm who underwent endovascular coiling inthis institution were discharged functionally trialsThereforeendovascular coiling promises to be a viable alternative to aneurysmmanagement especially for cases when surgical management may notbe ideal. Leonardo Z, Picar R; PhilJNeurol vol 11 no 1 (2007) 26. </p> <ul><li>Define the problem being studied </li></ul><ul><li>- Background info on what is currentlyknown </li></ul><ul><li>- Indicate: Significance</li></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale </li></ul><ul><li>Include statement of thepurpose/objectivesofthe study and the delimitations </li></ul><p>Introduction 27. </p> <ul><li>What should a good introduction contain? </li></ul><ul><li>Look for: </li></ul><ul><li>a background on the nature and scope of the research problem and its significance </li></ul><ul><li>orientation on part of the readerby reviewing pertinent literature </li></ul><ul><li>Statement/s of the objectives of the study </li></ul><ul><li>May include:method of investigation </li></ul><ul><li> principal results of the investigation </li></ul><p>Introduction 28. Avoid: 1. book description of the subject impertinent information lack of relevant info on the subject 2.excessively lengthy and verbosethe nobela type squid technique 3.the objectives:too broad excessive to become realistic! overly ambitious Introduction 29. should include information that was/were available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was written. all info obtained during the conduct of the study belongs in the Results section. Methods 30. Guiding principle: how and why the study was doneLook for: a. research design b. selection and description of participants inclusion/exclusion criteria description of the source population c. study site/s and time period covered/duration d. operational definitions eg. late Parkinson disease was operationallydefinedas those patients falling under stage 3or 4 of the Hoehn and Yahr staging Methods 31. Look for : e. study procedure copies of IRB or ERB approval Randomization done, blinding subject selection data gathered, etc, etc. f. Data analysis statistical tests level of significance actual computer program used (registered software!) outcome measures g. for experimental studies involving non-humans - include scientific nomenclature(Genus and species) - indicate the guide for the care of lab animals basedon national or institutional committees Methods 32. Look for: h. for drugs, use generic names followed by thetrade name and the manufacturer i. for equipment: state the equipment usedmanufacturers name and address j. for experiments using certain techniques, state full details(in order to permit replication for others to utilize) k. for studies involving human subjects or patients: observe strict confidentiality copies of the written informed consents for publication pedigrees should have written consent photographs masking and with written consents should indicate if authors followed theHelsinki Declaration of 1975, revised 2000 Methods 33. Look for: 1. demographics and outcome measures 2. results!!! (continuous variables, percentages) reserve the correlation andinterpretation for thediscussions 3. statistical analysis - use of numerical data and not generalizations - use of actual p value (followed by the actual testthat wasused) eg. p=0.005, chi square 4. others:spell out per cent be consistent on decimal places Results 34. </p> <ul><li>use tables if there are many categories </li></ul><ul><li>- no need to state in the textual part of the results all thecontents of the tables </li></ul><ul><li>- simple format with complete title </li></ul><ul><li>- put p values (if applicable) </li></ul><ul><li>- observe: 1 double-spaced table per page </li></ul><ul><li>use figures and graphs sparingly! </li></ul><ul><li>- efficient when illustrating trends </li></ul><ul><li>- less useful than tables</li></ul><ul><li>- no need to repeat in figure or graphs what has alreadybeen shown in tables! </li></ul><ul><li>- dont forget the complete title of the figure </li></ul><ul><li>- no 2-D or 3-D figures please! </li></ul><p>Results 35. Table 2. Radioimmunoassay techniques used in the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis Sample table: 20 58 Cell IFA 40 84 ELISA CSF 18 68 HI test 50 89 Convalescent 40 84 AcuteELISA Plasma Specificty (%) Sensitivity (%) 40 50 18 40 20 84 89 68 84 58 Plasma ELISA AcuteConvalescent HI test CSF ELISA Cell IFA Specificty (%) Sensitivity (%) 36. it is useful to beginby summarizing briefly the main findings, then explorepossible mechanisms or explanations for the findings compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies, state the limitations of the study, and explore the implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice Discussion 37. </p> <ul><li>Look for: </li></ul><ul><li>generalizations derived from the results </li></ul><ul><li>2. limitations, exceptions and any lack of correlation </li></ul><ul><li>3.elaboration on the unsettled points </li></ul><p>Discussion </p> <ul><li>4. relationship of the new information with the previous published works </li></ul><ul><li>applicability of the results(theoretical and practical implications of the results; relate present findings that were argued in the introduction) </li></ul><ul><li>6. conclusion/s with brief summary of the evidences(should clearly answer the research questions!) </li></ul><p>38. </p> <ul><li>Avoid: </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition of the statements results </li></ul><ul><li>2. Too verbose, theoretical texts that are irrelevant to the research problem* </li></ul><ul><li>3.Inadequate discussions on the significant results </li></ul><ul><li>4.Failure to justify negative results </li></ul><ul><li>5. Failure to end with a brief climax </li></ul><p>Discussion 39. PhilJNeurols Instructions to Authors </p> <ul><li>Avoid: </li></ul><ul><li>personal communications </li></ul><ul><li>Abstracts </li></ul><ul><li>unpublished data </li></ul><ul><li> in press or forthcoming </li></ul><ul><li>ICMJE Standard style: NLM </li></ul><p>References 40. </p> <ul><li>Submitting the paper to the PhilJNeurol </li></ul><ul><li>Submission Letter </li></ul><ul><li>(printed or electronic) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>address the letter to the editor-in-chief </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>intention for its publication </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>some description of the manuscript </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>include names of all authors </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>willingness to undergo review and editing </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>attach: </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li> good copies of the manuscript </li></ul><ul><li> Manuscript SubmissionAgreement </li></ul><ul><li>(Conflict of interest; IRB approval; informed consents;Copyright Transfer) </li></ul><p>41. Summary:In order to get the better chances of getting your work published in a biomedical journal: organize be simplistic logical From the time of drafting the research proposal until the final editing of the manuscript!!! 42. Manuscripts already published (or undergoing review) in alocally-circulatedbiomedical journal will not be accepted for PhilJNeurol publication 43. Manuscripts already published (or undergoing review) in aninternationalpeer-reviewed biomedical journal may be accepted for PhilJNeurol publication provided that there is a written permission from the editorial board of the journal where the paper was first published 44. Manuscripts already published (or undergoing review) in the PhilJNeurol, wherein the author/s intend/s to submit the same in: a. a locally-circulated biomedical journal may not be allowed by the PhilJNeuroleditorial board 45. Manuscripts already published (or undergoing review) in the PhilJNeurol, wher...</p>