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Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests D. Attie, J. Derre, E. Ferrer-Ribas, J.Galan, A. Giganon, I. Giomataris, F. Jeanneau, J. Manjarres, P. Schune

Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests

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Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests. D. Attie , J. Derre, E. Ferrer-Ribas, J.Galan , A. Giganon, I. Giomataris, F . Jeanneau , J . Manjarres, P. Schune. Ageing tests description. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests

Page 1: Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests

Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests

D. Attie, J. Derre, E. Ferrer-Ribas, J.Galan, A. Giganon,I. Giomataris, F. Jeanneau, J. Manjarres, P. Schune

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Ageing tests description

X-ray spectrum is determined by 3 parameters, electron current (mA),

acelerating voltage (kV),and cathode composition.

The main idea is to proof the capability of detectors made of new Micromegas technology to operate in long data taking periods.

Ageing tests are being carried out in CEA Saclay by using 2 type of radiation.

X-rays radiation -> Simulate detector charge operation for long time equivalent period

Neutron radiation -> proof invariability of detector material properties and ageing due to nuclear interaction.

The X-ray ageing study includes

Characterization of X-ray gun rate and spectrum nature.

Determining the expected equivalent integrated charge at the HL-LHC during 5 years.

Estimation of exposure time required to validate the detector for long operating times.

Detector characterization before and after exposure.

X-ray exposure results ready, and satisfactory.

Page 3: Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests

Resistive prototypes (2D readout) Two resistive prototypes (R17) were sent to Saclay for performing ageing tests

Y readout

X readout



128 um

Bulk Mesh

Strip pitch/width for all: 250 µm/150 µmTop layer ( Resistive strips): 35 µm thickInsulation (coverlay): 60 µmY strips (90 degrees to R strips): 9 µm CuInsulation (FR-4): 75 µmX strips (same direction as R strips): 9 µm Cu

Geometrical properties

17A Resistance to GND: 80-140 MOhmResistance along strips: 45-50 MOhm/cm

Resistance to GND: 60-100 MOhmResistance along strips: 35-40 MOhm/cm17B

Both detectors show similar gain propertiesRe-characterized at CEA for different gas mixtures

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X-ray gun characterization : Low intensity and well collimated

55Fe source main peak5.96 keV

Sets up ADC gain82.67 ADCs/keV

X-ray gun spectrumThrough collimator0.5 mm diameter

Area = 0.2 mm2

Double gaussian fit for X-ray gun sets up main peak energies and rates.

E = 5.96keV

X-ray gun peaks Energy Interaction rate

Low energy peak 3.51 keV 500 kHz/mm2

High energy peak 5.28 keV 1.5MHz/mm2

Atom Line Energy Decay Probability

ChromeKa1 5.415 17.1

Ka2 5.4 8.7

VanadiumKa1 4.952 15.3

Ka2 4.945 7.7

CalciumKa1 3.692 10.2

Ka2 2.688 5.11

PotasiumKa1 3.314 8.7

Ka2 3.311 4.4

Page 5: Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests

5 layers of 3M copper tape (35um/layer) are used to screen the generated X-rays and produce fluorescence in the copper.

The copper transmission allows us to determine the original rate at 8keV.

The same mask as in the ageing exposure was used (4cm2 square).

Rate measurements attenuated with Copper

The attenuated rate at the 8keV peak is related with the original rate at the detector at around the 8keV peak.

If the original rate around 8keV is considered constant the integrated transmission factor is

X-ray gun characterization : Using copper layer

resulting 43 kHz/mm2/keV at 8keV

Original rate (before reaching gas volume)

resulting 43 kHz/mm2/keV/mA at 8keV

Page 6: Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests

Ageing tests : X-ray exposure

Equivalent charge generated during 5 years HL-LHC

Wi (Argon + 10% CO2) = 26.7 eVGain = 5000

MIP deposit in 0.5 cm drift = 1248.5 eV

Charge per iteration = 37.4 fC

Expected rate at the HL-LHC : 10kHz/cm2

5 years of HL-LHC operation (200days X year)

Total detector charge generated during HL-LHC operation is estimated to be 32.5 mC/cm2

Detector operated in data taking conditions

Gas mixture : Argon + 10% CO2Gas Flow = 0.5 l/h

Gain 3000HVm = 540VHVd =790 V

X-ray generator set-up at 10 kV 5 mA

X-ray exposure in a small active area

region of 4 cm2.

Page 7: Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests

Ageing tests : X-ray exposure

During the X-ray ageing test it was generated a total charge of

Qageing = 765mC in 4cm2,

during a total exposure time of

Texposure = 11days 21 hours

And therefore, the total charge to be generated at the HL-LHC during 5 years with more than

a factor 5 of security factor.

Detector gain was not degraded at the area of X-ray exposure

Page 8: Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests

Detector characterization : Dependency with position

A mask with 9 holes was prepared to do gain measurements at different positions.

The gain and the rate are monitored at each hole.

For that the source is kept always at the same relative position.

One axis seems to be more stable than the other. Possible influence from the resistive strips orientation?

Page 9: Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests

Detector characterization : Dependency with position


Axis U

1 9. . . . . . . .

Axis V








Page 10: Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests

Detector characterization : Influence of rate in detector gain

Measurements at different rates were taken by attenuating the X-ray gun with several copper layers.

The X-ray generator is set-up at HV = 11.5 kV and increasing current from 0.4 mA to 21.8 mA to generate the different rates.

Rate and gain are estimated using the 8keV peak from copper.

Page 11: Resistive Micromegas Ageing tests


We can conclude there is no damage or ageing due to the operation of the detector for an equivalent charge to the generated in th HL-LHC. First results are positive.

Misterious gain evolution during ageing tests. Fabrication charge trapping and during operation is released? Resistive plane voltage offset affecting the effective amplification field, and that’s why we observe improvement?

Homogeneity with position, grounding? We could not use APV connectors for proper grounding.

Gain dependency with rate reveals no more than 80% loss for rates up to 10kHz

Further ageing tests with neutrons will proof the detector operation due to the material degradation, and secondaries produced by neutrons; recoils, material activation, high ionizing events due to hadronic interaction.