Respiration. I. Cellular Respiration A.Biochemical process cells use to release energy from glucose B.Energy is stored in the bonds of adenosine triphosphate

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  • Respiration

  • I. Cellular RespirationBiochemical process cells use to release energy from glucoseEnergy is stored in the bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

  • I. Cellular Respiration (cont)When a phosphate is removed it is changed to ADP + Phosphate and energy is releasedWater + ATP ADP + P + EnergyTwo Types of cell respirationAerobic uses oxygenAnaerobic without oxygen

  • I. Cellular Respiration (cont)Anaerobic RespirationCarried on by cells in absence of oxygenPerformed in cytoplasm of cellMain source of energy for bacteria and fungi (yeast)Used to make foods such as cheese, yogurt, bread and wine

  • I. Cellular Respiration (cont)Two typesAlcoholic FermentationGlucose 2 alcohol + 2 CO2 + 2 ATPLactic Acid FermentationGlucose 2 Lactic Acid + 2 ATPBoth are inefficient since alcohol and lactic acid have large amounts of unused energy (many bonds leftover)

  • I. Cellular Respiration (cont)Aerobic RespirationCarried on by cells in presence of oxygenPerformed in mitochondria of the cellGlucose + O2 H2O + CO2 + 36 ATPMore efficient than anaerobic respiration

  • II. Gas ExchangeRespiratory System moves gases between external and internal surfaces for gas exchangeStructures of Respiratory SystemNasal Cavity air goes through nostrils and enters cavity. Cavity is lined with mucous membranes that clean, warm and moisten air (uvula separates from throat)

  • II. Gas Exchange (cont)Pharynx area where oral and nasal cavities meetTrachea (windpipe) tube where air passes from pharynx to lungsContains rings of cartilage that keeps trachea openLined with cilia that trap particles in air and sweep it up to the pharynx to get coughed or sneezed outContains epiglottis and larynxEpiglottis covers opening of trachea during swallowing and opens during breathingLarynx (voice box) produces speech

  • II. Gas Exchange (cont)Bronchi and Bronchioles lower end of trachea splits forming 2 bronchi which are lined with mucous and ringed with cartilage. Bronchi separate into MANY bronchiolesAlveoli Millions of alveoli are in the lungsWalls are thin and moist and surrounded by capillaries O2 diffuses from lungs to blood and CO2 + H2O diffuse from blood to lungs

  • II. Gas Exchange (cont)

  • II. Gas Exchange (cont)

  • III. BreathingAir moving in and out of the lungsLungsNo muscle but HIGHLY elastic. Expand and contract b/c of pressure changes in chest cavity (caused by actions of rib cage and diaphragm)

  • III. Breathing (cont)Inhalation Ribs up and out, diaphragm moves down.Enlarges chest cavity, makes LOW pressure, air goes inExhalationRibs down and in, diaphragm moves up.Decreases cavity, HIGH pressure, air out

  • III. Breathing (cont)

  • IV. Breathing RateControlled by breathing center in medulla of brainSenses amount of CO2 in blood.When amount is high, nerve signals (impulses) are sent to lungs and diaphragm to increase breathing rateWhen amount lowers, impulses are slowed, dec breathing rateThis is a feedback mechanism

  • IV. Breathing Rate (cont)

  • V. DisordersBronchitis inflammation of bronchial tubes. Air passages become narrowed and filled with mucous, causing difficulty breathing and coughing

  • V. Disorders (cont)Asthma an allergic reaction causing narrowing of bronchial tubes, difficulty in breathing

  • V. Disorders (cont)Emphysema walls of alveoli break down, dec surface area for gas exchange, causing difficulty breathing and dec lung capacity (smoking can cause)


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