Respiration. Respiration Respiration the process by which food molecules are broken down –Food molecules are 6-carbons sugars –You take in food which.

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  • Respiration

  • RespirationRespiration the process by which food molecules are broken downFood molecules are 6-carbons sugars You take in food which is digested and broken down into 6-carbon sugarsPlants cant eat so they make 6-carbon sugars with photosynthesisMitochondria then transform the food energy into chemical energy

  • RespirationA 6-carbon sugar contains an enormous amount of energy (for a cell)Mitochondria make change energeticallyTake the energy in a sugar and convert it into more conveniently-sized packages

  • RespirationC6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energyCarbondioxideWaterCarbohydrateOxygen

  • RespirationAerobic respiration: processes that require oxygen in order to take placeAnaerobic respiration: processes that do not require oxygen

  • Aerobic RespirationStep 1: GlycolysisStep 2: Breakdown of pyruvic acidStep 3: Citric acid cycle Step 4: Electron transport chain

  • RespirationMATRIX:Breakdown ofpyruvic acid, Citric acid cycleINNER MEMBRANE:Electron transportchainOuter membraneCYTOPLASM:Glycolysis

  • Step 1: GlycolysisOccurs in cytoplasmDoes not require oxygenInvolves splitting a glucose (6-carbon sugar) into 2 3-carbon molecules: pyruvic acid

  • Step 1: GlycolysisAlso produces H+ ions and energizes electrons which are captured by NAD+, forming NADH + H+

  • Step 1: GlycolysisGlucose

  • Step 1: GlycolysisGlucose2 ATP2 ADP

  • Step 1: GlycolysisGlucose2 ATP2 ADPPP2 PGAL

  • Step 1: GlycolysisGlucose2 ATP2 ADPPP2 PGAL4ADP + 4 Pi2 NAD+2NADH + 2H+4ATP

  • Step 1: GlycolysisGlucose2 ATP2 ADPPP2 PGAL4ADP + 4 Pi2 NAD+2NADH + 2H+4ATP2 Pyruvicacid

  • Step 1: GlycolysisNet yeild2 ATP (uses 2, produces 4)2 NADH2 pyruvic acid

  • Aerobic RespirationStep 1: GlycolysisStep 2: Breakdown of pyruvic acidStep 3: Citric acid cycle Step 4: Electron transport chain

  • Step 2: Breakdown of Pyruvic AcidOccurs when pyruvic acid (from glycolysis) enters the mitochondrial matrixRequires oxygenIf there is no oxygen present pyruvic acid enters fermentation

  • Step 2: Breakdown of Pyruvic AcidInvolves breaking CO2 off pyruvic acidRemaining portion of pyruvic acid combines with coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA

  • Step 2: Breakdown of Pyruvic AcidAlso produces H+ and energizes electrons which are captured by NAD+, to form NADH + H+

  • Step 2: Breakdown of Pyruvic AcidTo citricacid cycleMitochondrialmembraneExhaled

  • Step 2: Breakdown of Pyruvic AcidNet yeild2 NADHAcetyl-CoA

  • Aerobic RespirationStep 1: GlycolysisStep 2: Breakdown of pyruvic acidStep 3: Citric acid cycle Step 4: Electron transport chain

  • Step 3: Citric Acid CycleOccurs in mitochondrial matrixAcetyl-CoA is transformed into citric acid through a series of reactions

  • Step 3: Citric Acid CycleMore ATP and CO2 are producedMore H+ are produced and electrons are energized NAD+ and FAD capture them to form NADH + H+ and FADH

  • Step 3: Citric Acid CycleCITRICACIDCYCLE4C5C6C Citric acid

  • Step 3: Citric Acid CycleNet yield2 ATP6 NADH2 FADH2

  • Aerobic RespirationStep 1: GlycolysisStep 2: Breakdown of pyruvic acidStep 3: Citric acid cycle Step 4: Electron transport chain

  • Step 4: Electron Transport ChainHappens on inner membrane of mitochondriaOccurs only if oxygen is presentOxygen is final electron acceptorIf no oxygen is present reaction stops

  • Step 4: Electron Transport ChainElectrons come from NADH and FADH molecules which gathered them during glycolysis and CTAEnergy from electrons is used to add Pi to ADP, forming ATPAt the end of the chain, oxygen accepts the electrons and combines with 2 H+ ions to form water

  • Step 4: Electron Transport ChainInnermitochondrialmembraneOutermitochondrialmembraneElectron transport chainCytochromesInter-membranespaceCytochromes

  • Step 4: Electron Transport ChainNet yeild32 ATP

  • Aerobic RespirationStep 1: GlycolysisStep 2: Breakdown of pyruvic acidStep 3: Citric acid cycle Step 4: Electron transport chain

  • Aerobic RespirationGlycolysis 2ATPCitric acid cycle 2Electron transport chain**32ATPATP**Makes ATP from electrons carried to it from the first 3 steps

  • Aerobic RespirationMakes 36 ATP

  • Anaerobic RespirationPyruvic acid molecules are still formed through glycolysisBroken down differently:No ATP is produced after glycolysisNAD+ is regenerated so glycolysis can continue

  • Anaerobic Respiration2 types:Lactic acid fermentationAlcoholic fermentation

  • Lactic Acid FermentationLactic acid is end productOccurs when muscles require energy at a faster rate than it can be supplied through aerobic respirationCauses burning sensation in muscles

  • Lactic Acid Fermentation

    GlycolysisGlycolysis

  • Lactic Acid Fermentation

  • Lactic Acid FermentationNet yield2 ATP

  • Alcoholic FermentationEthyl alcohol and CO2 are end productsOccurs in organisms that live in environments lacking oxygenSource of bubbles in beer and champagne and causes baking bread to rise

  • Alcoholic Fermentation

    GlycolysisGlycolysis

  • Alcoholic Fermentation

    Glycolysis2 Ethanol2 CO2

  • Comparison of Aerobic Respriation and FermentationHow many ATP does aerobic respiration produce?

    How many ATP does fermentation produce?36 ATP2 ATP

  • WERE DONE!!!!

  • Step 1: GlycolysisGlucose2 ATP2 ADPPP2 PGAL4ADP + 4 Pi2 NAD+2 Pyruvicacid

  • Step 2: Breakdown of Pyruvic AcidTo citricacid cycleExhaled

  • Step 3: Citric Acid CycleCITRICACIDCYCLE4C5C6C Citric acid4C

  • Step 4: Electron Transport ChainInnermitochondrialmembraneOutermitochondrialmembraneElectron transport chainCytochromesInter-membranespaceCytochromes

  • Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Glycolysis

  • Alcoholic Fermentation

    Glycolysis2 Ethanol2 CO2

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