Human Respiratory System
A system to deliver oxygen (O2) to body
cells & get rid of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a waste through cellular respiration.
Two systems involved:
Glucose + O2 C02 + H20 + Energy
Glucose in cells is broken down to release energy (ATP) when O2 is
ATP is cells energy for
About the About the About the About the Respiratory SystemRespiratory SystemRespiratory SystemRespiratory System
Openings to the respiratory system at the
Cilia & Mucus
- sweeps, warms, & traps particles to filter
away from the lungs.
- cells that moisten to trap particles
Nasal Passages (Cavity)
Cilia lined passages that end (terminate)
at the pharynx; acts like a humidifier.
Space at the back
of the oral cavity
where the mouth
and nose meet.
Flap of tissue that covers the tracheal opening
to prevent food fromentering the lungs (choking).
Also, called the voice box
(the site for
A cartilage ringed structure that remains
open so air can travel to the lungs.
Right and Left major
divisions of the trachea;
lined with cilia.Left Bronchus
Smaller subdivisions of the bronchi after
they have entered into the lobes of the lung; not made of cartilage.
Balloon-like structures in the chest that
bring oxygen into the body and expel (release) carbon dioxide from the body.
Alveoli (air sacs) Small thin air sacs at the end of the
bronchioles surrounded with capillaries to allow for gaseous exchange.
A thin, moist surface to help for gas exchange by diffusion.
Surface must be in contact with free oxygen.
Ex: Unicellular organisms (protists, amebas, paramecium)
- Cell membrane & environment
Ex: Multicellular organisms
- Specialized organs & transport system
Diaphragm A sheet of muscle that separates the
thoracic (chest) and abdominal cavities.
The movement of air into and out of the lungs.
No muscles are connected to the lungs.
Air pressure drives air into our lungs.
Increased CO2 levels in body, triggers (tells) brain to bring air into lungs.
The Mechanics for
The Control Center for Breathing
The inverse (opposite) relationship between volume & pressure.
- increase in volume (air rushing in)
- decrease in pressure.
- decrease in volume (air leaving)
- increase in pressure.
Air flows inLung expands(inflates)
Air flows outLung contracts(deflates)
Diaphragm contracts& moves downward (descends).
Diaphragm relaxes & moves upward (rises).
2 Phases of Breathing
In the ALVEOLI, O2 diffuses into capillary
when you inhale.
In the CAPILLARY, CO2 diffuses into the
alveoli to be exhaled.
The Control for Breathing
Lung Contractions& Air enters lungs
Exercise Muscles need O2 because O2 is needed to
make ATP (energy source).
- fast heartbeat, faster/deeper breathing, & sweat
- higher concentration of CO2 & low O2 in muscle cells.
- increase blood flow so more O2 in blood.
Hemoglobin on the RBC
O2 & CO2
Cigarette Smoking Paralyzes the cilia & can cause many
Major cause for heart disease.
Leader: Keeps group on task
Recorder: Keeps a written record of groups work
Reporter: Presents groups work to class
Noise monitor: Keeps groups voices manageable
Bronchi and bronchial tubes become
irritated & swollen.
Symptoms: cough, sore throat, yellow or
Cause: smoking, bacteria, viruses
Treatment: Treat symptoms or antibiotics
An allergic response
Symptoms: wheezing, coughing, & difficulty breathing.
Cause: pollutants in air, emotions, unknown
Treatment: medications (inhalers)
Inflamed lining of bronchioles
Alveoli filled with trapped air
Alveoli (air sac) fills up with fluid.
Symptoms: high fever, cough, increase
Causes: bacteria, virus, fungus
Fluid filled air spaces
Lungs lose elasticity (cant stretch).
Alveoli wall is damaged and breaksdown.
Less surface area for gas exchange.
Irreversible (cant reverse)
Symptoms: mild cough, weight loss, tired
Cause: Years of smoking destroys alveoli
Treatment: Oxygen therapy (O2 tank)
Overinflated & broken alveolar sacs
Broken alveolar capillaries
Uncontrolled growth of abnormal lung cells
(no function), can spread.
Symptoms: new cough, cough with blood,
shortness of breath
Causes: smoking , pollutants
Treatments: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation treatment.