Respiratory System PPT. - Mrs. Reece's Science ??Respiratory System Human Respiratory ... Bronchioles Bronchioles Bronchioles Lung ... Microsoft PowerPoint - Respiratory System PPT

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    Respiratory System

    Human Respiratory System

    A system to deliver oxygen (O2) to body

    cells & get rid of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a waste through cellular respiration.

    Two systems involved:

    Respiratory &

    Circulatory Systems.

    Cellular Respiration

    Glucose + O2 C02 + H20 + Energy

    Glucose in cells is broken down to release energy (ATP) when O2 is

    present.

    ATP is cells energy for

    cell work!

    Label diagram

    About the About the About the About the Respiratory SystemRespiratory SystemRespiratory SystemRespiratory System

    Nostrils

    Openings to the respiratory system at the

    nose.

    Nostrils

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    Cilia & Mucus

    Cilia

    - sweeps, warms, & traps particles to filter

    away from the lungs.

    Mucus

    - cells that moisten to trap particles

    Nasal Passages (Cavity)

    Cilia lined passages that end (terminate)

    at the pharynx; acts like a humidifier.

    Nasal

    Passage

    Pharynx (throat)

    Space at the back

    of the oral cavity

    where the mouth

    and nose meet.

    Epiglottis

    Flap of tissue that covers the tracheal opening

    to prevent food fromentering the lungs (choking).

    Larynx

    Also, called the voice box

    (the site for

    vocal cords).

    Needed to

    create sound.

    Larynx

    Larynx

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    Trachea: (windpipe)

    A cartilage ringed structure that remains

    open so air can travel to the lungs.

    Trachea

    Bronchi

    Right and Left major

    divisions of the trachea;

    lined with cilia.Left Bronchus

    Right Bronchus

    Smaller

    Bronchioles

    Smaller subdivisions of the bronchi after

    they have entered into the lobes of the lung; not made of cartilage.

    Bronchioles

    BronchiolesBronchioles

    Lung

    Balloon-like structures in the chest that

    bring oxygen into the body and expel (release) carbon dioxide from the body.

    Alveoli (air sacs) Small thin air sacs at the end of the

    bronchioles surrounded with capillaries to allow for gaseous exchange.

    Alveolar

    Sac

    Alveoli

    Capillary

    network

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    Respiratory Surface

    A thin, moist surface to help for gas exchange by diffusion.

    Surface must be in contact with free oxygen.

    Ex: Unicellular organisms (protists, amebas, paramecium)

    - Cell membrane & environment

    Ex: Multicellular organisms

    - Specialized organs & transport system

    http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter1/animation__the_pleural_membranes.html

    Diaphragm A sheet of muscle that separates the

    thoracic (chest) and abdominal cavities.

    Chest Cavity

    Abdominal Cavity

    Breathing

    The movement of air into and out of the lungs.

    No muscles are connected to the lungs.

    Air pressure drives air into our lungs.

    Increased CO2 levels in body, triggers (tells) brain to bring air into lungs.

    The Mechanics for

    Breathing

    Boyles Law

    Diaphragm Movement

    The Control Center for Breathing

    Boyle's Law:

    The inverse (opposite) relationship between volume & pressure.

    Inhalation

    - increase in volume (air rushing in)

    - decrease in pressure.

    Exhalation

    - decrease in volume (air leaving)

    - increase in pressure.

    Summary On

    Diaphragm Breathing

    Inhalation Exhalation

    Air flows inLung expands(inflates)

    Air flows outLung contracts(deflates)

    Diaphragm contracts& moves downward (descends).

    Diaphragm relaxes & moves upward (rises).

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    2 Phases of Breathing

    http://www.footprints-science.co.uk/breathing1.htm

    Worksheet Exercise

    http://www.footprints-science.co.uk/alveoli.htm

    In the ALVEOLI, O2 diffuses into capillary

    when you inhale.

    In the CAPILLARY, CO2 diffuses into the

    alveoli to be exhaled.

    The Control for Breathing

    Medulla Oblongata

    Diaphragm&

    Chest Muscles

    Lung Contractions& Air enters lungs

    Exercise Muscles need O2 because O2 is needed to

    make ATP (energy source).

    Causes:

    - fast heartbeat, faster/deeper breathing, & sweat

    - higher concentration of CO2 & low O2 in muscle cells.

    - increase blood flow so more O2 in blood.

    Hemoglobin on the RBC

    Carries

    O2 & CO2

    http://health.howstuffworks.com/sports-physiology8.htm

    Medical Disorders

    (Malfunctions)

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    Cigarette Smoking Paralyzes the cilia & can cause many

    diseases.

    blood vessels.

    Major cause for heart disease.

    Group Roles

    Leader: Keeps group on task

    Recorder: Keeps a written record of groups work

    Reporter: Presents groups work to class

    Noise monitor: Keeps groups voices manageable

    Bronchitis

    Bronchi and bronchial tubes become

    irritated & swollen.

    Symptoms: cough, sore throat, yellow or

    green mucus

    Cause: smoking, bacteria, viruses

    Treatment: Treat symptoms or antibiotics

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    Asthma

    An allergic response

    Bronchioles narrow

    Symptoms: wheezing, coughing, & difficulty breathing.

    Cause: pollutants in air, emotions, unknown

    Treatment: medications (inhalers)

    Tightened muscles

    Excess mucus

    Inflamed lining of bronchioles

    Alveoli filled with trapped air

    Asthma

    Pneumonia

    Alveoli (air sac) fills up with fluid.

    Symptoms: high fever, cough, increase

    mucus, chills

    Causes: bacteria, virus, fungus

    Treatment: Antibiotics

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    Fluid filled air spaces

    PneumoniaEmphysema

    Lungs lose elasticity (cant stretch).

    Alveoli wall is damaged and breaksdown.

    Less surface area for gas exchange.

    Irreversible (cant reverse)

    Symptoms: mild cough, weight loss, tired

    Cause: Years of smoking destroys alveoli

    Treatment: Oxygen therapy (O2 tank)

    Overinflated & broken alveolar sacs

    Broken alveolar capillaries

    Bronchioles

    EmphysemaLung Cancer

    Uncontrolled growth of abnormal lung cells

    (no function), can spread.

    Symptoms: new cough, cough with blood,

    shortness of breath

    Causes: smoking , pollutants

    Treatments: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation treatment.