Responses to Housing Challenges - A State Perspective on ... The Norwegian Housing Bank Responses to

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  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    Responses to Housing

    Challenges -

    A State Perspective on

    The Case of Oslo

    By

    Anne Ruden

    The Norwegian Housing Bank

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    Norway

    58°

    71°

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    The Municipality of Oslo Department of Planning and Building

    The Oslofjord

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    The Municipality of Oslo Department of Planning and Building

    The City between the Fjord and the Forest

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    • Parliamentary system of government

    • Social policies and education fully

    decentralised

    • Implementation of housing policy mainly

    carried out by

    – the 25 (15) districts,

    – The Housing and Real Estate Office

    – The Planning and Building Authority

    System of Government i Oslo

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    Prices of flats in Oslo, Rural Housing and

    Consumer Prices

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    1600

    1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

    Blokk, 75 kvm Oslo Enebolig, 140 kvm Hedmark KPSFlats 75 m2 in Oslo 140 m2 in Hedmark CP

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    Annual new housing construction in

    Norway total and Oslo

    0

    5000

    10000

    15000

    20000

    25000

    30000

    35000

    40000

    45000

    1950-

    54

    1955-

    59

    1960-

    64

    1965-

    69

    1970-

    74

    1975-

    79

    1980-

    84

    1985-

    89

    1990-

    94

    1995-

    99

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    3000

    3500

    4000

    4500

    5000

    Hele landet

    Oslo

    Oslo Total

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    Builders of new

    Housing Construction in Oslo

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    3000

    1960-64 1965-69 1970-74 1975-79 1980-84 1985-89 1990-94 1995-99

    Andre

    Cooperativt

    Other

    Co-operative

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    pct.

    Home ownership Private rental Public rental

    Housing ownership structure in Norway

    Oslo

    Norway

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    0

    0,1

    0,2

    0,3

    0,4

    0,5

    0,6

    0,7

    0,8

    Pr od

    .s ub

    s

    Ho us

    .a llo

    w an

    ce s

    Denmark

    Sweden

    Finland

    Norway

    Housing Subsidies in

    Scandinavian Countries

    Pct. of GNP 1999

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    The main challenges

    • Optimising existing resources: – More targeting of disadvantaged groups

    – Provide housing and follow up for people with complex problems

    – Acquire resources and flexibility to meet the needs of a changing market

    – Transparency in transfers and policy schemes

    • How – More emphasis on planning and on documentation of needs

    – Increased delegation to the 25 (15) districts

    – More economised use of municipal housing – market pricing

    – Promote co-operation between sectors and region

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    Who needs housing assistance in

    Oslo?

    live in low-income

    households

    8% need social

    welfare

    3% need housing

    assistance

    17 % of

    population 3 pct of total

    households

    57% live in inadequate

    housing

    31% are homeless

    13% in short-term tenancy

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    New ambitions

    “The Municipality shall play an active role to promote and facilitate build of 40 000 new, functionally and environmentally good housing units by 2015”

    What types of housing units?

    28 000 large projects

    8 000 smaller projects

    4 000 in densification

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    And later?

    Room for more;

    • land reserves for

    – 29000 more housing units in new plots

    – 23 000 housing units in densification

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    Main Strategies

    • Densification

    • Focus on main connection points for public

    transportation

    • Develop last “virginal” land areas

    • The “Fjord-city” developments

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    How?

    • Better planning tools

    • Co-ordinated processes for planning and

    implementation

    • Deliberate use of municipal land

    • Planning deals as a housing policy

    measure

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    The Municipality of Oslo Department of Planning and Building

    The Fjord City

    1. Filipstad-Tjuvholmen

    2. Pipervika

    3. Akershus Castle

    4. Bjørvika-Bispevika

    5. Sørenga-Sjursøya

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    The Municipality of Oslo Department of Planning and Building

    1. Filipstad - Tjuvholmen

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    The Municipality of Oslo Department of Planning and Building

    2. Pipervika

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    The Municipality of Oslo Department of Planning and Building

    3. Akershus Castle

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    The Municipality of Oslo Department of Planning and Building

    4. Bjørvika - Bispevika

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    The Municipality of Oslo Department of Planning and Building

    5. Sørenga - Sjursøya

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    How to Increase Affordability

    • Impact of a better balanced housing market

    • Demand side measures

    • Construction of low cost housing units;

    – Land priced at half market price, subsidies retained

    – State subsidies

    – Active land use policy /zoning and property

    management (carrots and sticks)

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    Planning deals as housing policy

    measures – used with caution

    To be used to stimulate housing development – not choke it

    A joint commitment between city and developer

    • Developer: • Roads, water, basic green areas

    • Municipality: • Schools, primary health and social care

    • To be negotiated: • Borderline infrastructure; extensive developments

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    Other ways for a municipality to

    influence private developers

    • Take initiatives

    • Bring parties together

    • Active use of municipal property

    • Co-ordinate its own activities

    • Integrate new developments with urban

    renewal

    • Initiate pilot projects

  • The Norwegian Housing Bank

    Conclusion

    • The market in need of better framework conditions to solve the housing needs of Oslo

    • The efficiency of a demand side subsidy depends on the response of the housing supply

    • Some supply side subsidies needed for new affordable housing

    • Affordable housing needs an active land policy

    Housing policies depend on the underlying urban policies