REVIEW ON POWER LINE MONITORING USING SMART existing system used AT89C52 microcontroller for monitoring power line ... Power theft identification using ... Monitoring and wireless control of power

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  • International Journal of Recent Innovation in Engineering and Research Scientific Journal Impact Factor - 3.605 by SJIF

    e- ISSN: 2456 2084

    @IJRIER-All rights Reserved -2017 Page 25

    REVIEW ON POWER LINE MONITORING USING SMART GRID

    TECHNOLOGY

    Mr.Sachin Vitthal Ingle1,Prof. D. L. Gadhe

    2, Miss.Ayushi Metkar

    3 and Pravin shinde

    4

    1M.E. (Embedded system), Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, MIT, Aurangabad,

    Maharashtra, India 2Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, MIT, Aurangabad,

    Maharashtra, India 3,4STC, SPRT KHAMGAON , MAHARASHTRA INDIA

    Abstract-This paper gives idea about wireless sensor network and its use in the Smart Grid technology. The aim of smart grid is to offer a real-time monitoring, controlling, improving the power quality and

    overall efficiency of the entire system also extend the life of component used in system. Smart grid is

    nothing but the mixing of electrical network and communication infrastructure. Smart grid system is

    used to measure the value of potential difference between two point of power line, current flowing

    through power line, and temperature of a power line in distribution and transmission side. A Smart grid

    is a smart digital energy system providing electrical network that transporting the required amount of

    power. The digital technology that allows for bidirectional data transfer between the utility and its

    customers, and the sensing along the transmission lines is what makes the grid smart. This paper

    discusses some of the new wireless communications technology and advance development in the areas

    of smart grid with identification of online theft that prevails on distribution line. It presents the details on

    the designing architecture, sensors, integration, communication technology and different design aspects

    of the power supervision, wide operating range and consistency. This system is a powerful for

    evaluating a different power line parameters and minimizing a power loss are taking using PIC

    controller, smart sensor and recent developed in various communication technology.

    Keywords- smart grid, WSN ,PIC controller,Zig-bee.

    I. INTRODUCTION

    The rapidly growing electricity demand day by day, together with the difficult, energetic and

    circulated electricity supplies, have caused serious power grid blockage issues in the future smart grid.

    Grid consists of the complete electrical network or a local electrical network or a sub network such as a

    local utility's transmission grid or distribution grid. To overcome all the problems a new idea of next

    generation electric power system, a smart grid, has emerged.

    The smart grid is a modern mixing or integration of electric power-grid infrastructure and

    modern communication technologies which for improved efficiency, reliability, and safety with smooth

    integration of renewable and different energy sources, through automated control. Traditional smart grid

    has few user options, manually recovery, uses a small number of sensor, manually monitoring, analog

    electric machinery are uses for measurement power line parameters, simplex communication, and main

    disadvantages of traditional grid is a more electricity loss and cannot identified power theft .Hence, there

    is an urgent requirement of a cost-effective wireless monitoring and diagnostic systems that improve

    system reliability and efficiency. So by using smart grid you can easily overcome all problems. Table 1: Comparison of traditional and smart grid

    Sr.No. Parameter Traditional Grid Smart Grid

    1 Machinery used Analog digital

    2 Communication Types Simplex Duplex

    3 Monitoring Manually Automatic

    4 Sensors used Less number More (smart sensor)

  • Volume: 02 Issue: 02 February 2017 (IJRIER)

    Available Online at : www.ijrier.com Page 26

    5 Power loss Maximum Minimum

    6 User option Few users More user

    7 Theft detection Not Possible Possible

    The proposed system used a Zig-bee communication module for sending measured data of

    current and voltage to server module and stores it in computer for future use. Bluetooth is used for

    controlling electric home appliances. Bluetooth has low coverage area up to 10m. Bluetooth is superior

    option for short distance controlling than Zig-bee. However, for long distance controlling is not easy to

    achieve via Bluetooth. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are becoming a universal technology resulting

    from the development of low cost and low power wireless technology. A GSM modem is a wireless

    modem that works with a GSM wireless network. A wireless modem behaves like a dial-up modem. The

    main difference between them is that a dial-up modem sends and receives data through a fixed telephone

    line while a wireless modem sends and receives data through radio waves. WSNs are a group of

    spatially distributed sensing nodes with low maintenance requirements, which can automatically monitor

    environmental parameters and cooperatively transfer the data through a gateway to a main database

    using wireless networking.

    The existing system used AT89C52 microcontroller for monitoring power line parameters and

    power theft.

    II. REVIEW ON EXISTING SYSTEM

    As from the study existing system are implemented by using different communication techniques

    and based upon numerous platforms too. Table 2: Summery of existing Smart grid technology

    Refe

    renc

    e no.

    Paper Title Communication

    Technology

    Processor

    used/System

    Sensor Outcomes

    [1] Monitoring of

    transmission line

    parameters using

    wireless networks

    in smart grid

    Cellular network,

    Optical Fiber,

    Wireless.

    Data

    preprocessor

    wireless

    sensor

    The analysis show that a

    transmission line monitoring

    framework using WSN is

    indeed feasible using

    accessible technologies &

    system is more reliable,

    secure.

    [2] A Novel Wireless

    Multifunctional

    Electronic

    Current

    Transformer based

    on ZigBee-based

    Communication

    Zig-bee

    Technology

    Sensing signal

    processing

    system

    Hall Sensor The proposed method of

    Zig-Bee-based

    communication, when the

    measured current is

    detected as being in the

    small or medium current

    range, the RMS value per

    current cycle is transmitted

    to a back-end

    Monitoring system to

    accomplish real-time

    monitoring.

  • Volume: 02 Issue: 02 February 2017 (IJRIER)

    Available Online at : www.ijrier.com Page 27

    [3] Wireless Smart

    Grid Design for

    Monitoring and

    Optimizing

    Electric

    Transmission in

    India

    NIL Smart

    Controlling

    Station,

    Wireless

    sensors.

    proposed system

    provides the solution for

    some of the main problems

    faced by the existing Indian

    grid system, such as

    wastage of energy, power

    theft, manual billing system,

    and transmission line fault

    [4] Real time

    monitoring of

    power line using

    smart sensor

    Zig-bee

    Technology

    PIC Stick on

    sensor

    Monitor the various grid

    parameters.

    [5] Power theft

    identification

    using smart grid

    technology

    Infra-red & Photo

    detector

    Technology

    AT89C51 opt coupler

    slot sensor

    determine illegal power

    theft via distribution line

    [6] Power grid

    monitoring &

    control using

    GSM

    GSM Technology Arduino Voltage,

    current,

    temperature

    sensor

    continuously monitor the

    load conditions of the Smart

    grid

    [7] Monitoring

    network for smart

    grid using smart

    phone

    Bluetooth & UART

    serial

    communication

    protocol, Internet

    PIC10F4520 temperature

    sensors

    Secure access gateway

    (SAG) for home area

    network

    [8] Wireless

    embedded system

    for power line

    monitoring

    Zig bee PIC18F4550 LA 55-P

    (Current

    Transducer)

    wireless embedded system

    to monitor the RMS current

    on an electric power line

    [9] Power line

    monitoring using

    smart grid based

    on communication

    protocol & smear

    sensor

    Zig Bee S1/S2

    Series module

    PIC18F4520 Smart sensor

    for current

    & voltage

    the predetermination of

    certain increase of current,

    voltage, gas or temperature

    the damage in the grid will

    be avoided

    [10] Monitoring and

    Wireless

    Controlling of

    Power Generation

    by LabView

    Coaxial cable,

    UTA Cable.

    ATmega328 Temperature

    sensor for

    power

    generation

    type VDO

    Monitoring and wireless

    control of power generation

    can improve interoperability

    efficiency and safety (by

    enabling the right the

    worker to be at the right

    place at the right time)

  • Volume: 02 Issue: 02 February 2017 (IJRIER)

    Available Online at : www.ijrier.com Page 28

    [11]

    Design And

    Implementation

    Of Electrical

    Distribution Line

    Monitoring And

    Controlling

    Using Wireless

    Network

    GSM,RF Module Atmega16

    microcontroll

    er

    Sensor,

    Relay

    Developing system for

    control and monitor the line

    position at any area using

    the concept of electrical

    distribution line. So the

    proposed

    system is designed to have

    emergency alert system for

    remote user with the help of

    a GSM modem will be

    connected to the central

    server which will send the

    emergency alert SMS to

    administrator and user

    [12] Review Paper on

    Electrical

    Distribution Line

    Monitoring

    RF,GSM, IOT NIL IOT a novel approach for

    controlling and

    monitoring the electrical

    distribution line by using

    IOT

    The above research literature studied so far shows that effectiveness use of wireless sensor

    network in smart grid technology for real time monitoring of power line parameters. However, the

    research paper has proposed various schemes to wireless communication system using WSN except IOT

    also Detection and location of faults on power transmission line is essential to the protection and

    maintenance of a power system. At present system there is no monitoring system implemented in order

    to find out the power line Parameters & theft identification by using a PIC microcontroller. To overcome

    these problems in regional areas proposed system is designed to monitor and control the electric

    transmission line using WSN with PIC microcontroller.

    III. PROPOSED SYSTEM

    The electricity theft is increasing a day by day in ruler and urban area for agriculture, domestic

    and industrial use. So power industries suffering a huge economical loss, consistency and security. In

    India during the transmission and distribution of electricity extremely high losses occurred in between

    35 to 47%. A smart grid includes a smart real time monitoring system using Zig bee communication

    protocol & PIC microcontroller that keeps track of all electricity flowing through power line.

    Fig. 1. Overall system

  • Volume: 02 Issue: 02 February 2017 (IJRIER)

    Available Online at : www.ijrier.com Page 29

    . Fig. 2. System setup at pole Unit

    Fig. 3. System Setup at Consumer Site

    IV. WORKING PRINCIPLE

    Proposed system designed considering two conditions as follows:

    Condition I- When real load is more than sanctioned load distribution system recognize that power is

    theft or overload exists.

    Condition II- When used load is not as much of sanctioned load and at that time if power is theft then it

    is not easy to distribution system to identified power theft. Hence here system is implemented which

    find out power theft in sanctioned equal load and overload condition.

    WORKING PRINCIPLE

    CONDITION 1: When there is no theft, Energy consumed at home side should be equal to energy

    supply from the pole end. Since both the energies value is equal there no theft is recognized and the

    buzzer dose not beeps. Under this condition the normal operation can be observed and it continues until

    there is theft at resident or line.

    CONDITION 2: When there is consumption at resident and theft is online, that is the power is being

    theft from the transmission line, the buzzer beeps indicating theft. In this condition power sent gradually

    increases as the theft power increases. After receiving the consumed unit at the home the pole side

    controller starts its working out. As the send units are more than the units consumed the difference

    between the two units is the theft power. After noticing the difference the relay is actuated which turns

    on the buzzer. Hence theft can identify.

    CONDITION 3: When there is no use of energies at the home side and theft is online at that time the

    home side consumption notify will be zero units, but send unit will be positive because of the online

    theft this difference will start the relay and buzzer to indicate theft. Besides the above three mentioned

    reasons, if there is a theft at the resident by tampering the meters and employing techniques which

  • Volume: 02 Issue: 02 February 2017 (IJRIER)

    Available Online at : www.ijrier.com Page 30

    counts less readings, such prohibited activities can also detected easily. At present 10 or there about

    connections are provided from a single distribution pole and every distribution pole has a typical code

    provided by Distribution Company. For implementation of smart grid technology every residential

    digital meter should be provided with code as an address. A small micro computer is to be installed at

    every distribution pole. The micro computer keeps the track of the send and consumed units of each and

    every house. As here using MAX232 for communication, PIC is able to record and compute the

    consumptions of many meters at a time. Hence it is succeeds in keeping the track of units sent to and

    consumed by every house. If the number of connections increased from a pole then replace MAX232 by

    MAX245 for greater speed and accuracy. Whenever theft is identified relay is actuated. Here used GSM

    model for communication purpose. Through GSM technology the distribution code is sent to substation.

    The operator can immediately attend the pole and through the micro-computer one can get meter code

    from where the power has been theft. Doing so the theft can immediately stopped and person

    responsible for theft can be caught for guilty.

    V. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE

    The proposed system can determine against the law power theft via distribution line. In financial

    year 20014-15 about 45000 corer losses occur due to power theft. Results proved that if smart grid

    system is used illegal power theft might be detected. Once this proposed detection systems are tried in

    real power lines, the supply losses in India can be reduced effectively.

    In future work, the cost of real time monitoring system for power transmission line needs to...

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