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  • 2008

    . 1 . 2 . 95-196, , 2008

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  • 111

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    4.210 US$ 1997 , 7.200 US$ 2005 ), , (, 1) (9.527 US$) (33.082 US$) ( 4). , , , ( 19% 1997 , 29% 2005 ).

    : Human Developmen Reports (1990-2008), UNDP,

  • . . . . 1 . 101-122, , 2008

    114

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  • 115

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    per capita (PPP US$)

    8.333 1 36,790 8.068 2 33,580 7.810 8 27,960 7.615 13 41,529 7.392 17 30,750 7.163 22 22,340 7,084 25 30,640 7.048 26 28,250 6.986 27 21,892 6.917 29 31,150

    6.766 32 10,000 6.496 40 13,350 6.462 41 33,840 6.301 49 11,870 6.171 55 14,550 6.162 57 8,664

    5.899 69 18,330

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    : The Economist Intelligence Unit, The World in 2005 UNDP (HDR: 2008)

  • . . . . 1 . 101-122, , 2008

    116

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    : Human Development Report (2008), UNDP

  • 117

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    per capita (7.200 US$) per capita (33.082 US$). , , , , . , 0.938 ( 3).

    : Human Developmen Report (2008), UNDP.

  • . . . . 1 . 101-122, , 2008

    118

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  • 119

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  • . . . . 1 . 101-122, , 2008

    120

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  • 121

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    Begg, D. et al. (2000) Economics, sixth edition, McGraw-Hill.Coudouel, A., and Hentschel, J. (2000) Poverty Data and Measurement, The World Bank, Washington D.C.Chakravarty, S. and Majumder, A. (2008) Millennium Development Goals: Mea-suring Progress towards their Achievement, Journal of Human Development, is-sue 1 - 2008. , (2005) , 2004, 4.4.5.01.Eftimoski, Dimitar (2006) Measuring Quality of Life in Macedonia - Using Human Development Indicators, Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics Journal of Economics and Business, Vol. 24, No 2., . (2003) , - , .Essama-Nash, B. (2005) Inequality and Poverty Simulations within the Lorenz Framework, Poverty Reduction Group, The World Bank, Washington D.C.Foster, J.E., J. Greer, E. Thorbecke (1984) A Class of Decomposable Poverty Indices, Econometrics 52, pp.761-766.Human Developmen Report. (2008) Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and The Global Water Crisis , UNDP.Human Development Reports. (1990-2008), UNDP.McNeill, D. (2007) Human Development The Power of the Idea, Journal of Human Development, issue 1 - 2007.Prescott-Allen, R. (2001) The Wellbeing of Nations: A CountrybyCountry Index of Quality of Life and the Environment, Covelo, CA. IDRC/Island Press 2001.Ravallion, M. (2000) Poverty Concepts and Measures, Development Research Group, The World Bank, Washington D.C. Sen, A. (2000) A Decade of Human Development, Journal of Human Development, Vol. 1, No. 1, February.Sen, A. and Anand, S. (1994) Human Development Index - Methodology and Measurement, Human Development Report Office.Sen, A. and Foster, J. (1997) On Economic Inequality (Radcliffe Lectures), Ox-ford University Press.The Economist Intelligence Unit. (2005) The Economist Intelligence Units Qual-ity-of-life index, The World in 2005.Thorbecke, E. (2004) Conceptual and Measurement Issues in Poverty Analysis, WIDER Discussion Paper, No. 2004/04. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER.

  • . . . . 1 . 101-122, , 2008

    122

    Keywords: living standards, quality of living, wellbeing, human development, poverty, economic inequality.

    Abstract

    This paperwork basically has theoretical character. Subject of this elaboration is the concept of living standards and quality of living, as well as concepts similar to it, as the following; wellbeing, human development, poverty and economic inequality. In this paperwork ba-sic measurements for particular concepts have been presented, the level of living standards and quality of living in the Republic of Mac-edonia have been evaluated, and an effort for comparison with high developed countries and Central and Eastern Europe countries has been made.

  • 123

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    128

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    (2008), www.finance.gov.mk , , . 62/2005 , , . 106/2008

  • . . . . 1 . 123-132, , 2008

    132

    Abstract:

    The difference between gross wages (or employers labour costs) and net take-home wage for employees is sum of the personal in-come tax and all social security contributions, minus the cash ben-efits (defined as percentage of labour costs). Generally, changes in gross wages are limited value presented as percentage points as a positive or a negative rate. Larger changes generally have one of the following three causes:

    changes in national tax, compulsory social security contribu-tions and benefit legislation

    divergences between the change in earnings and the chang-es to the structural parameters of the tax system and

    changes in countries reporting practicesIn the case of Macedonia, the proposed legislative changes will be effected by the decrease of the gross wages. The suggested modi-fications are in:

    legislation of social security contributions and benefit legislation.

    The reduction of labour costs is identified in the rates of social secu-rity contributions and will be caused by changes to the pension se-curity contributions and health security contributions. Compulsory so-cial security contributions will be paid by employers on behalf of the employees to general government under the effective control of the government. Contributions will be levied on gross earnings and will be earmarked to provide social security benefits. In the case of Macedonia, it is applicable the system of standard tax reliefs. The standard tax reliefs are reliefs which are unrelated to actu-al expenditures incurred by the taxpayer and are automatically avail-able to all taxpayers who satisfy the eligibility rules specified in the legislation. The increased value of these standard tax reliefs by the government also will cause the reduction in gross wages, particular-ly the wages which are on the lower level.

  • 133

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  • . . . . 1 . 133-146, , 2008

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  • 137

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  • . . . . 1 . 133-146, , 2008

    138

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  • 139

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  • . . . . 1 . 133-146, , 2008

    140

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  • 141

    . ,

    , . , -. . , , , , , (Busse-maker, van Kersbergen 1999).

    - (Mahon, 2002). 1990- . , , (Knijn, 1998). , . . - , , . , ,

    , (Ostner, 1994).

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  • . . . . 1 . 133-146, , 2008

    142

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  • 143

    . ,

    , .

    , . , , , .

    , . 2008 . 2008-2015 . , - , , . , ( , 2008).

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    . , . ,

  • . . . . 1 . 133-146, , 2008

    144

    , , , , .

    , . , . , , , , .

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  • 145

    . ,

    ,

    ,

    , .

    :

    Bussemaker, J.,& van Kersbergen, K. (1999) Contemporary social-capitalist welfare states and gender inequality. In: Sainsbury, Diane (ed.) (1999): Gender and welfare state regimes. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 15-46.

    (2006) , 1994-2004, : .

    (2007) , 2006, : .

    Esping-Andersen, G. (1999) Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies. Oxford Uni-versity, Press: Oxford.

    Esping-Andersen, G. (2002) A child-centered social investment strategy. In: Esping-An-dersen, Gsta with Duncan Gallie, Anton Hemerijck, and John Myles: Why we need a new welfare state. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 26-67.

    European Council (1996) Council Directive 96/34/EC of 3 June 1996 on the framework agreement on parental leave concluded by UNICE, CEEP and ETUC (OJL 145, June 19, 1996, 4-9.

    European Council (2002) Presidency Conclusions. Barcelona European Council 15 and 16 March, 2002. poseteno na 14.07.2007: http://europa.eu.int/council/off/conclu/.

    , . 25, 2001.

    , , . 62, 2005.

    Knijn, T. (1998) Social care in the Netherlands. In: Lewis, Jane (ed.): Gender, social care and welfare state restructuring in Europe. Ashgate: Aldershot, 85-109.

    Lesthaeghe, R., and D. J. van de Kaa, (1986). Twee Demografische Transities?, van de Kaa, D.J.&Lesthaeghe, R. (Eds.), Groei en Krimp. DDeventer: Van LoghumSlater-us, pp. 924.

    Mahon, R. (2002): Child care: Toward what kind of social Europe? In: Social Politics 9/3, 343- 379.

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    146

    , 14.11.2008 . www.mtsp.gov.mk/default.asp?ItemID=BD66FCC3A7FBCB47AB9150CBFECD2C96

    Missoc (2001) Social protection in the member states in the EU member states and the European economic area: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/missoc/index_en.html

    Neyer, G. ( 2003) Family Policies and Low fertility in Western Europe, Max Planck Insti-tute for demographic Research.

    OECD (2007) Employment Outlook 2007, OECD Family Data Base , PF7 Key charcter-isitc of parental leave systems ) Poseteno na 13.07.2007 na http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/missoc/index_en.html

    Ostner, I. (1994): Back to the fifties: Gender and welfare in unified Germany. In: Social Politics, 1/1, 32-59.

    Pinnelli A., Nowotny-Hoffman, J.H., Fux B. (2001) Fertility and new types od households and family formation in Europa, Population Studies 35, Council of Europa

    Abstract

    The main aim of this article is empirical analysis of the fertility lev-el and family policies in the Republic of Macedonia. The policies are analyzed from their opportunity to influence on the popula-tion development. The policies that are matter of concern in this article are policies that are in a close relation to the childbearing and rearing of children such as maternity policies, parental-leave policies, childcare services, and child benefits.

  • 147

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    2008

    .

    17 . , . , , , . , , , , . , . , , . : (20.10.2008).

  • 155

    . -

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  • . . . . 1 . 147-164, , 2008

    156

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  • 157

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  • . . . . 1 . 147-164, , 2008

    158

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  • 159

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  • . . . . 1 . 147-164, , 2008

    160

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  • 161

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  • . . . . 1 . 147-164, , 2008

    162

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  • 163

    . -

    :Food and Agriculture Organization (2008) Speech of FAO Director-General Jacques Diouf at http://www.fao.org/english/dg/2008/index.html

    G20 (2008) Declaration of the Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy, www.imf.orgInternational Labor Organization (2008) Impact of financial and economic crisis on the world of work, ILO/08/46, www.ilo.org.

    International Monetary Fund (2008) Financial Crisis Takes Harsh Toll on Europe, www.imf.org

    Stiglitz, J. (2003) Globalization and Its Discontents, New York: W W Norton & Co Inc.

    World Health Organization (2008) Impact of the global financial and economic crisis on health, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2008/s12/en/index.html

    Abstract:

    The globalization has contributed towards changes, towards growth and development that produced positive effects, which are imbalanced. When recession and crisis hit global markets it is of immense importance to undertake measures that provide and safeguard current reproduction. The analysis of the crises, along the economic aspect should also take into consideration social as-pects as well. The social aspects are also vital which if not mitigat-ed could endanger the survival of the system. Therefore, it might be said that a new world financial order is needed, to tackle the future financial and real crises, but also osculation in the social sector that will have affect on the social development. This means than the undertaken measures should not have ad-hock and re-medial purpose, but they should be fundamental and targeted to-wards creation of a new system that will provide stability, efficien-cy as well as social justice, on the long term.

    The global capitalism, the global economy, the global finan-cial and real market are in need of new global rules, but also glo-bal institutions that will regulate global markets and processes, as

  • . . . . 1 . 147-164, , 2008

    164

    well as social aspects of living. The current trend is directed to-wards strengthening of regulatory mechanisms of the states that is introduction of principles of state intervention in the condition of market economy, which should enable the normal functioning of the societies. This is also accompanied with international regula-tion to which the states will transfer part of their responsibilities to provide for stability in the wider context.

  • 165

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    331.215.62 : 336.226.112.1 (497.7) 2009

  • . . . . 1 . 165-180, , 2008

    166

    :

    01.01.2009 01.01.2010 01.01.2011 21,2 > 19% 19% > 16,5% 16,5% > 15%

    9,2% > 7,5% 7,5% > 7% 7% > 6%

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  • 167

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  • . . . . 1 . 165-180, , 2008

    168

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  • 169

    1. -

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  • . . . . 1 . 165-180, , 2008

    170

    2. - , 8.000

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    4.300 = 16.8843.200 = 15.784

    : 2009 ,

    3.200 , , 4.300 . 2009 27,9%.

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  • 171

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    5.214 3.525 5.436 4.629 7.069 7.940 12.141 12.354

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    :

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  • . . . . 1 . 165-180, , 2008

    172

    3. - . , - -, , , . -, - - . - , - .

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  • 173

    . - . ,

    St. Gallen, , 28 30 , 2008 IV , - . . - , ERSTE , .

    , 600 , , , , , , , . , .

    , - , , Alfonso Sousa-Poza, St. Gal-len, -, - , Vladimir Spidla.

    - - Robert Holz-mann, . , - - Hans-Ulrich Maerki, , . , : -

    364.422-05 (497.7)

  • . . . . 1 . 165-180, , 2008

    174

    - Michael Marmot, - Janet Voute, : .

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  • 175

    - . ,

    :

    , , 14-16 , 2008

    , DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Ausa-tausch Dienst), , : . : , , , .

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    . -

    364-785.24

  • . . . . 1 . 165-180, , 2008

    176

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  • 177

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    364.4-053.6 (062)

  • . . . . 1 . 165-180, , 2008

    178

    , , , .

    , : (1) ; (2) ; (3)

    ; (4) . ; (5) .

  • 179

    . - .

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    364.65-053.9(100)(062)

  • . . . . 1 . 165-180, , 2008

    180

    - - , , , - - - .

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  • 181

    ?

    1997 . 70% . , , , . , ,

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    ?

    , 2007 , 29, 2006 0,4 .

    , - -, 60,4% 5 -. - 39,1%, 45,9% . , , . , 64,3%

    311.312:330.567.2 (497.7)

  • . . . . 1 . 181-190, , 2008

    182

    , .

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    SILC , - - . , , - , - - ,

  • 183

    SILC .

    , 2009 , , . , , SILC 2010 . , , , , , . , , 60% -. , SILC , , , , - - . , , . , SILC-. : , , , , .

    -/ ( )?

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  • . . . . 1 . 181-190, , 2008

    184

    , . .

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    , , , . , . , , - , .

    , . - . , 10% , 75,8% , , 10- , 10%

  • 185

    , 21,4%, - : , , -, , .

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    , . - , - - , , - - -. , , , , , - - -, , .

  • . . . . 1 . 181-190, , 2008

    186

    ,

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    , - - , . - , 7 , 7,25% , (, , , , .), 29,5% , 63%, . - , -, - 5 , 50% . 40% , . 16% , 7 , , ; 77%

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    364-787.9(497.7:=217.58)365.4(497.7:=217.58)

  • 187

    , , . , .

    , . 4.000 5 , 5.000 . , , , .

    ?

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    ?

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  • . . . . 1 . 181-190, , 2008

    188

    ?

    . , Catholic Relief Services, , . ? , , , , . : , , .

    . . , . , . , . . .

    60 , . ,

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    . , .

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  • 189

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  • . . . . 1 . 181-190, , 2008

    190

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    - . , , . 142 , . , , 10 , .

  • 191

    . 1: 2008 2008 2008

    12 404 12 414 12 333 15 605 15 728 15 759 79,5 78,9 78,3

    % 20,5 21,1 21,7: , 2008

    . 2: , 2008

    Red. broj PROIZVOD ILI USLUGA

    Edinica merka

    Prose~na cena

    Koli~. koi mo`at da se kupat

    1 Kravjo mleko litar 38.06 414 2 Priroden med kg 221.46 71 3 Leb od p~eni~no bra{no, tip 500 kg 44.41 355 4 Malinov sok (koncentriran), so {i{e litar 78.34 201 5 Svinsko meso bez koski kg 284.22 55 6 Jagne{ko meso kg 321.11 49 7 Maslo za jadewe (rafinirano), bez {i{e litar 97.89 161 8 Pr`eno kafe kg 322.40 49 9 Kisela mineralna voda od 1.5l litar 20.35 774 10 Svetlo pivo vo {i{e od 1/2 l, bez {i{e litar 32.00 492 11 Cigari ,,Rodeo

    ,, super lajt kutija 52.63 299

    12 Ma{ko zimsko palto od {tof, 80-100% volna par~e 6 363.72 2.5 13 Trenerki za vozrasni komplet 2 844.78 6 14 @enski xemper, me{avina par~e 1 340.15 12 15 @enski tenki ~orapi od sinteti~ko vlakno, prva klasa par~e 124.53 127

    16 Postelnina za edno lice od damast (jastu~nica, du{e~en i jorganski ~ar{af) komplet 1 373.10 11

    17 Frotir pe{kir, golemina okolu 50h100 sm par~e 185.16 85 18 U~eni~ka torba par~e 773.54 20 19 Drvo za ogrev (za doma}instvo) m3 2 621.48 6 20 Bojler vertikalen, 80 l par~e 5 145.61 3.1 21 Ma{ina za perewe par~e 15 365.79 1.0 22 Fri`ider kombiniran, 280/70 l par~e 19 674.55 0.8 23 Digitalen fotoaparat par~e 8 730.00 1.8 24 Elektri~na pegla, okolu 1000 vati par~e 1 680.22 9 25 Detergent za ma{insko perewe kg 110.63 142 26 Lak za kosa, 200 gr par~e 138.91 113 27 Benzin MB-96 (premium) litar 77.60 203 28 Cement portland kg 6.52 2417 29 Yidni }erami~ki plo~ki m2 546.98 29 30 Vleznica za kino karta 129.35 122 31 Mese~en bilet na vraboteniot za prevoz vo grad karta 1 759.35 9

    : , 2008

  • . . . . 1 . 191-198, , 2008

    192

    . 3: , 2008

    28.10.2008

    Godina/Year XLVI

    Broj/No: 4.1.8.742

    Izdava~: Dr`aven zavod za statistika

    Skopje, Dame Gruev 4, P.fah 506

    Tel. 02/3295-600, Faks 02/3111-336

    [email protected]; www.stat.gov.mk

    Pri koristewe na podatocite da se navede izvorot

    Publisher: State Statistical OfficeSkopje, Dame Gruev 4, P. box 506Tel. 3892/3295-600, Fax 3892/[email protected]; www.stat.gov.mk

    When using data state the source

    denari denars

    VIII 2008 2007

    VIII 2008 VII 2008

    VIII 2008 VIII 2007

    I-VIII 2008 I-VIII 2007

    Prose~na isplatena mese~na neto-plata, vo denari

    15 820 15 627 15 796 108.5 100.1 109.5 110.1Average monthly net-wage, paid in denars

    Realna neto-plata - - - 100.4 100.3 100.8 100.6 Real net-wage

    denari denars

    VIII 2008 2007

    VIII 2008 VII 2008

    VIII 2008 VIII 2007

    I-VIII 2008 I-VIII 2007

    Zemjodelstvo (A+B) 10 438 10 361 10 566 98.0 99.5 88.8 95.7 Agriculture (A+B)

    Industrija (od V do \) 15 739 15 421 15 588 108.2 102.1 105.7 107.4 Industry (from C to F)

    Uslugi (od E do Q) 17 333 17 146 17 332 107.8 99.9 109.0 109.3 Services (from G to O)

    VIII 2008 I-VIII 2008 VI-VIII 2008

    Prose~na isplatena mese~na neto-plata po sektori na dejnosti, avgust 2008

    Indeksi/Indices

    Prose~na isplatena mese~na neto-plata po vraboten, avgust 2008

    Average monthly net-wage paid per employee, August 2008

    Average monthly net-wage paid by sectors of activities, August 2008

    VI-VIII 2008VIII 2008 I-VIII 2008Indeksi/Indices

    : , 2008

    . 4: , 2008

    28.10.2008

    Godina/Year XLVI

    Broj/No: 4.1.8.742

    Izdava~: Dr`aven zavod za statistika

    Skopje, Dame Gruev 4, P.fah 506

    Tel. 02/3295-600, Faks 02/3111-336

    [email protected]; www.stat.gov.mk

    Pri koristewe na podatocite da se navede izvorot

    Publisher: State Statistical OfficeSkopje, Dame Gruev 4, P. box 506Tel. 3892/3295-600, Fax 3892/[email protected]; www.stat.gov.mk

    When using data state the source

    denari denars

    VIII 2008 2007

    VIII 2008 VII 2008

    VIII 2008 VIII 2007

    I-VIII 2008 I-VIII 2007

    Prose~na isplatena mese~na neto-plata, vo denari

    15 820 15 627 15 796 108.5 100.1 109.5 110.1Average monthly net-wage, paid in denars

    Realna neto-plata - - - 100.4 100.3 100.8 100.6 Real net-wage

    denari denars

    VIII 2008 2007

    VIII 2008 VII 2008

    VIII 2008 VIII 2007

    I-VIII 2008 I-VIII 2007

    Zemjodelstvo (A+B) 10 438 10 361 10 566 98.0 99.5 88.8 95.7 Agriculture (A+B)

    Industrija (od V do \) 15 739 15 421 15 588 108.2 102.1 105.7 107.4 Industry (from C to F)

    Uslugi (od E do Q) 17 333 17 146 17 332 107.8 99.9 109.0 109.3 Services (from G to O)

    VIII 2008 I-VIII 2008 VI-VIII 2008

    Prose~na isplatena mese~na neto-plata po sektori na dejnosti, avgust 2008

    Indeksi/Indices

    Prose~na isplatena mese~na neto-plata po vraboten, avgust 2008

    Average monthly net-wage paid per employee, August 2008

    Average monthly net-wage paid by sectors of activities, August 2008

    VI-VIII 2008VIII 2008 I-VIII 2008Indeksi/Indices

    : , 2008

  • 193

    .1: , 2008

    28.10.2008

    Godina/Year XLVI

    Broj/No: 4.1.8.748

    Izdava~: Dr`aven zavod za statistika

    Skopje, Dame Gruev 4, P.fah 506

    Tel. 02/3295-600, Faks 02/3111-336

    [email protected]; www.stat.gov.mk

    Pri koristewe na podatocite da se navede izvorot

    Publisher: State Statistical OfficeSkopje, Dame Gruev 4, P. box 506Tel. 3892/3295-600, Fax 3892/[email protected]; www.stat.gov.mk

    When using data state the source

    Prose~na isplatena mese~na neto-plata po vraboten, avgust 2008Average monthly net-wage paid per employee, August 2008

    0

    5000

    10000

    15000

    20000

    25000

    30000

    35000

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O

    A B V G D \ E @ Z Y I J K L Q

    A Zemjodelstvo, lov i {umarstvo A Agriculture, hunting and forestry

    B Ribarstvo B Fishing

    V Rudarstvo i vadewe na kamen C Mining and quarrying

    G Prerabotuva~ka industrija D Manufacturing

    D Snabduvawe so elektri~na energija, gas i voda

    E Electricity, gas and w ater supply

    \ Grade`ni{tvo F Construction

    E Trgovija na golemo i trgovija na malo, popravka na motorni vozila, motocikli i predmeti za li~na upotreba i za doma}instvata

    G Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods

    @ Hoteli i restorani H Hotels and restaurants

    Z Soobra}aj, skladirawe i vrski I Transport, storage and communications

    Y Finansisko posreduvawe J Financial intermediation

    I Aktivnosti vo vrska so nedvi`en imot, iznajmuvawe i delovni aktivnosti

    K Real estate, renting and business activities

    J Javna uprava i odbrana, zadol`itelna socijalna za{tita

    L Public administration and defence, compulsory social security

    K Obrazovanie M Education

    L Zdravstvo i socijalna rabota N Health and social work

    Q Drugi komunalni, kulturni, op{ti i li~ni uslu`ni aktivnosti

    O Other activities of communal, cultural, general and personal services

    , . , . , ,

    , , . , . . , ,

  • . . . . 1 . 191-198, , 2008

    194

    . 5: , 2006

    : , 2008

  • 195

    6: , 2008

    : , 2008

  • . . . . 1 . 191-198, , 2008

    196

    :

    () 5.000 . ( , , ), 2.000 .

    :

    ( ) () ()

    : Mak. C. Times 12,

    : (Single)

    :

    , , , , . : . , . : (, 2006), (Coury, 2001.a, 2001.b), ( , 1994.:25), ( ., 2000.:25-26), (Gough i sur., 1997.; Esping-Andersen, 1990., 1999., 2004.), ( , 2004.), ( , .. 5/2000, . 21, .1).

  • 197

    , , :

    : , . (2006) , : .

    : , . (2004) .., , 1-2:36-38.

    : , . (2007) , ? : , . (.) : , (. 14-28), : .

    (/) : , ., , . (2006), . 20.09.2008 http://www.fes.org.mk/pdf/WERTE-MK.pdf

    : (2004) , : .

    : - , . 38/91, . 17/97 ( ), . 10/2004

    : (2004) 2003, :

  • . . . . 1 . 191-198, , 2008

    198