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  • REVIVING URBANISM:

    Elevated Freeways, Boulevards, and Urban Renewal

    James May

    Candidate for Master of Community Planning

    Auburn University

    School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture

    Spring 2012

  • REVIVING URBANISM

    i

    Table of Contents Abstract ........................................................................................................................................................ 1

    Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 2

    History of the Urban Freeway ...................................................................................................................... 5

    Pre-history ................................................................................................................................................. 5

    It was never meant to go there................................................................................................................. 6

    Birth of the Urban Freeway .................................................................................................................. 6

    Futurama ............................................................................................................................................... 7

    Highway and the City ............................................................................................................................ 9

    How did we get here? ............................................................................................................................. 10

    Urban Renewal.................................................................................................................................... 10

    Urban Transportation ......................................................................................................................... 11

    Total Approach .................................................................................................................................... 12

    Urban Revival .......................................................................................................................................... 13

    Freeway Removal ................................................................................................................................ 13

    The Boulevard ..................................................................................................................................... 16

    Research Design ......................................................................................................................................... 17

    Octavia Boulevard, Hayes Valley, San Francisco, CA ................................................................................ 25

    Boulevard Design .................................................................................................................................... 27

    Impact Zone ............................................................................................................................................ 29

    Rose Kennedy Greenway, North End, Boston, MA ................................................................................... 32

    Boulevard Design .................................................................................................................................... 33

    Impact Zone ............................................................................................................................................ 37

    McKinley Avenue, Haymarket, Milwaukee, WI ........................................................................................ 39

    Boulevard Design .................................................................................................................................... 40

    Impact Zone ............................................................................................................................................ 44

  • REVIVING URBANISM

    ii

    Table of Contents (cont.) Impact Analysis........................................................................................................................................... 46

    Population Density .................................................................................................................................. 46

    Population Diversity ................................................................................................................................ 48

    Racial Diversity .................................................................................................................................... 48

    Age Diversity ....................................................................................................................................... 51

    Employment ............................................................................................................................................ 53

    Housing Density ...................................................................................................................................... 55

    Structural Age ......................................................................................................................................... 58

    Occupancy ............................................................................................................................................... 61

    Development Density .............................................................................................................................. 64

    Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................. 67

  • REVIVING URBANISM

    iii

    Table of Figures Figure 1: Octavia Boulevard, San Francisco, CA. Image provided by ESRI ArcGIS. Measurements are

    approximate.................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 2: Octavia Boulevard Pedestrian Realm, Southbound, San Francisco, CA. Image provided by

    Google Earth. ................................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 3: Octavia Boulevard Pedestrian Realm, Local Lane Entrance, San Francisco, CA. Image provided

    by Google Earth. ............................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 4: Octavia Boulevard Pedestrian Realm, Northbound, San Francisco, CA. Image provided by

    Google Earth. ................................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 5: Hayes Valley Impact Zone. Map created using ESRI ArcGIS 10. . Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 6: Rose Kennedy Greenway, Boston, MA. Image provided by ESRI ArcGIS. Measurements are

    approximate.................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 7: Rose Kennedy Greenway Pedestrian Realm, Boston, MA. Image provided by Google Earth.

    ....................................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 8: Rose Kennedy Greenway Pedestrian Realm, Boston, MA. Image provided by Google Earth.

    ....................................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 9: Rose Kennedy Greenway, Boston, MA. Image provided by Google Earth. . Error! Bookmark not

    defined.

    Figure 10: North End Impact Zone. Map created using ESRI ArcGIS 10. .... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 11: McKinley Avenue, Milwaukee, WI. Image provided by ESRI ArcGIS. Measurements are

    approximate.................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 12: McKinley Avenue Pedestrian Realm, Westbound Facing West, Milwaukee, WI. Image

    provided by Google Earth. ............................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 13: McKinley Avenue Pedestrian Realm, Westbound Facing East, Milwaukee, WI. Image

    provided by Google Earth. ............................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 14: McKinley Avenue Pedestrian Realm, Eastbound Facing East, Milwaukee, WI. Image provided

    by Google Earth. ............................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 15: McKinley Avenue, Milwaukee, WI. Image provided by Google Earth. ..... Error! Bookmark not

    defined.

    Figure 16: McKinley Avenue Pedestrian Realm, Eastbound Facing West, Milwaukee, WI. Image

    provided by Google Earth. ............................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 17: Haymarket Impact Zone. Map created using ESRI ArcGIS 10. ... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Figure 18: Population Density per Acre, Hayes Valley, San Francisco, CA. Error! Bookmark not defined.

  • REVIVING URBANISM

    iv

    Figure 19: Population Density per Acre, North End, Boston, MA. ............... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Fig

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