Revolutions: Haitian, American, French, and Latin American Independence Movements 1700s-1800s

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  • Revolutions: Haitian, American, French, and Latin American Independence Movements1700s-1800s

  • Began on August 22, 1781Slave uprising against the French Francois Dominique Toussaint LOuverture organized a small military groupIn order to overcome powerful countries wanting to claim Haiti (France, England, and Spanish) Toussiant played powers off of one another, finally allying with FrenchHaitian RevolutionToussaint LOuverture

  • Haitian RevolutionNapoleons rule resulted in Toussiant LOuvertures deathJean-Jacques Dessalines was former slave who took over for Toussaint LOuvertureGeneral Leclerc sent by Napoleon to deal with Haitians - bloody battles occurredEnded on November 28, 1803

  • Legacy of Haitian RevolutionSymbol of freedom and hope to the rest of slaves in North AmericaSlave owners became aware of chance of rebellion of slavesSlave shelters built by slave owners in case of an uprising

    Haitian RevolutionVideo

  • French Revolution

  • French RevolutionThe revolutions start was in the 1780s with resentment towards royal power, food scarcity and the rise of Enlightenment ideasLouis XVI was forced to convoke the Estates-General Third estate made up of the lower class wanted more representation; declared themselves the National Assembly

  • French RevolutionOn June 20, 1789, the National Assembly swore the Tennis Court OathWould not leave the tennis court until a new constitution had been made (Declaration of the rights of Man and the Citizen)On July 14, 1789, the prison of Bastille was taken by the rebellion and served as a symbol of the revolution Feudalism abolished on August 4, 1789Louis XVI

  • French RevolutionRadical phase started by 1792; led by Maximilien RobespierreKing was executed and the Reign of Terror occurred in which unpopular factions were destroyedConstitution proclaimed male suffrage, slavery temporarily abolished, and spirit of nationalism Final phase of revolution occurred under Napoleon from 1799 to 1815 during which expansion of the French empire occurredParliament reduced in power, but religious freedom, equality for men, education, were promoted

    French Revolution Video

  • Prelude to the American RevolutionLaws passed by the English government to limit expansion as well as pass laws on the American colonies (taxation, etc.)American colonies looking for more independence Artisans and farmers looking for ways to promote social equality

  • American RevolutionOn June 15, 1775, the Continental Congress appoints George Washington general of Continental ArmyOn June 17, 1775, the Battle of Bunker Hill occurs with the British winning, but at a huge costIn December of 1775, the American colonies are placed under an embargoMay 2, 1776, France commits 1 million dollars in arms to the colonies and Spain also offers supportBattle of Bunker Hill

  • American RevolutionOn July 4, 1776 the Declaration of Independence is issuedOctober 7, 1777- Battle of Saratoga results in 1st major American victoryArticles of Confederation adopted on November 15, 1777 making Congress the sole authorityIn 1789, the U.S. sets up a new constitutional structure with checks and balances between the different branches of government as well as limited voting rights (to wealthy white males)

    American Revolution VideoAbove - The signing of the Declaration of Independence.

  • Latin American Independence Movements (Brazil)By end of 18th century, Brazil had grown in economic importance1807, France invaded Portugal; Portuguese king moved to Brazil; Rio de Janeiro made capitalDom Joao VI moved back to Portugal in 1820, but son Dom Pedro I, stayed behindPedro was called back to Portugal, but, after refusing, declared Brazil independent in 1822

  • Latin American Independence Movements (Peru)Jose San Martin was military commander in Argentina who wanted to secure Peruvian silverPeru still under Spanish control, upper class extremely conservative; but Napoleonic invasions of Spain sparked revolutionSan Martin was unable to defeat Spanish in interior, and with his withdrawal, Simon Bolivar took overBattles in 1824 such as battle of Ayacucho assured Perus independence (see next slide)

  • Latin American Independence Movements (Chile)In September 1810, open town meeting appointed junta made up of local leaders to rule (searching for more independence)Battle of Rancagua in October 1814, Spain regained controlCarrera brothers and Bernard OHiggins convinced Jose San Martin to help themIndependence proclaimed in 1818 with OHiggins as dictator

    Latin American Revolutions Video

    Young Anti-War Protest

  • Causes/Motives of the RevolutionsAll revolutions resulted from peasant unrestIndustrialization and economic hardships (food shortages) Nationalist ideas helped to spur on all revolutionsMedia played major role in advocating change; monarchs could publish newspapers supporting their actions, controlling the publics knowledge, revolutionaries could also use media to support their beliefs of overthrowing the governmentNeed to industrialize nationsArtisans or peasants who wanted older economic values

  • Causes/Motives of the Revolutions (continued)Enlightenment thinkers challenged regimes that didnt grant religious freedoms or insisted on aristocratic privilegeCommercialization caused merchants to challenge idea that aristocrats hold highest powerPopulation increase made it harder for anyone not aristocrat to gain office; led to protesting

  • **Causes of Revolutions**

    HaitiFranceAmericaLatin America Slaves wanted vengeance Slaves retained culture, wanted to reinstate it Planters wanted independence from FranceFree people of color wanted citizenship Slaves wanted freedom (under cruel conditions) Haitians received little profit from plantations (French got it all) Large population as disease, food shortages& mortality declinedCapitalism introduced, economy grewIn lean years, 90% of peasantry lived at or below subsistence level Kings competed with officers for authority; kings wanted monarchy King had been involved in religious controversies Resisted Britain's attempts to impose taxes and trade controls on colonies Overpopulation led young men to seek new opportunities Growing commerce led to farmers and artisans looking for ways to defend social equality and community spirit Stamp Act of 1765 on all documents and pamphlets Conflict and invasion in mother country (Legitimacy of rulers) Restrictions on education and trade Conflict between political values (liberals and conservatives) American, French, and Haitian Revolutions Resented taxation and policies of mother countries

  • Effects of Revolutions

  • Positive Effect:Rise of DemocracyHaitian Revolution gave more equality to people of color and helped them gain independence from France - Inspired other countries to form own democracy- Early constitutions balanced popular representation by imposing property restrictions on voters

  • Positive Effect:Rise of DemocracyFrench Revolution:- General Estates formed, consisting of 3 estates, or classes of people- 3rd estate known as Commons formed National Assembly- National Assembly abolished feudalism in 1789, aristocrats lost privileges; church land seized- Assembly published Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen on August 26, 1789- Assembly became legislature of new government (parliament)- Constitution proclaimed individual rights

  • Positive Effect:Rise of DemocracyAmerican Revolution:- May 10, 1776, Congress allowed each of colonies to form local governments- July 4, 1776, Declaration of Independence- U.S. Constitution set up in 1789 with checks and balances between different branches, guarantees of individual liberties, and limited voting rights Latin America- Local leaders were taking positions of greater importance- Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin both played important roles- Freedom of trade was reached both within the nations and internationally

  • Positive Effect:Additional ReformsMedia played a large part in most revolutions (French, Latin American, etc.) promoting patriots ideas as well as monarchs ideas (increasing importance)France - Protestants regaining their rights; Louis XVI forced to produce annual publication of state of finances = accountability

  • Negative Effects of the RevolutionsHaitian Revolution- Africans seen by General Leclerc (invading French officer) immediately killed- Instilled fear among slave owners, tighter restriction on slave rights (slaves couldnt be taught to read)French Revolution- Radical phase resulted in deaths of opponents of revolution aided by guillotine - Incited further war, especially under Napoleon, in other countries- Destruction of property

  • Negative Effects of the Revolutions (continued)American Revolution- Deaths of about 7,000 Americans- New government deeply in debt, had to pay soldiers salaries in addition to cost of food and weapons Latin AmericaDid not receive full independence; still dependent onEuropean and U.S. economies

  • Global ConnectionRevolutions spurred on movements in other countriesIntroduced new political ideas (democracy, constitutions, etc.) used worldwideIn case of Haitian Revolution, inspired other slave rebellionsGave power to commoners/slaves; knew they could overthrow governmentAmerican Revolution led to independence movements in other colonies escaping from European control