Revolutions in Latin America 1800’s. Causes of Latin American Revolutions. Inspired by Enlightenment ideas Creole discontent Motivated by the “successful” American and French Revolutions. Napoleonic Wars Preoccupy Spain & Portugal in fighting in war in Europe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Revolutions in Latin America: 19c-Early 20c
Revolutionsin Latin America1800s
Causes of Latin AmericanRevolutionsInspired by Enlightenment ideas
Motivated by the successful American and French Revolutions.
Napoleonic Wars Preoccupy Spain & Portugal in fighting in war in Europe
Taken advantage of by Europeans via economic policies which benefited Europe at the expense of the native Latin Americans
Latin American Revolutions!
Latin American Revolutions!First Colony to revoltHaitiHome Country: French colonyDate of Independence: 1804Independence Leaders: - Toussiant-Louverture (former slave)- Jean-Jaques Dessalines (Toussaints general)
Haitian Independence: 1791= slave revolt1801= Toussaint seized 2/3 of Haiti (frees slaves)1802= French troops arrive & agreement made to stop revolution1804= Dessalines starts revolution again and declares independence
Home Country: Spanish colonyDate of Independence: 1816
Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer)
Argentiaian Independence: 1816= Creole colonist rebel & seize government in a bloodless revolution 1816= Martin declares Argentina independent!Argentina
The Muscle of the Revolution
Bolivar coming from the North.Jos de St. Martn and Bernard OHiggins cross the Andes Mountains.Home Country: Spanish colonyDate of Independence: 1817
Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer) - Bernard OHiggins (military officer)
Chile Independence: 1817= San Martin leads his army across the Andes and spreads revolution into Chile 1817= Joins forces with OHiggins & defeat Spanish; declares Chile independent!Chile
Simn Bolivar: The Brainsof theRevolution
Creole leader of the revolutions in Venezuela.Spent time in Europe and the newly-independent United States.Home Country: Spanish colonyDate of Independence: 1821/1822
Independence Leaders: - Simon Bolivar (Venezulan Creole /military general)Gran Columbia Independence: 1811= Venezuela declares independence! 1811-1821= Revolution vs. Spain 1821= Bolivar wins independence! 1821= Revolution spreads to Columbia & Ecuador 1822= Bolivar elected president; the new nation called Gran Columbia established
Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador
Simn Bolivar & Jos de San Martin Join Forces!
Home Country: Spanish colonyDate of Independence: 1824
Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer) - Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/military general)
Peruvian Independence: 1821= San Martin takes revolution to Spanish in Peru1822= San Martin & Bolivar join forces to fight Spanish1822= San Martin leaves for Europe1822= Bolivar defeats Spanish at Battle of Ayacucho
PeruHome Country: Spanish colonyDate of Independence: 1825
Independence Leaders: - Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/milit. general)Bolivian Independence: 1824= Bolivar continues revolution by driving out the remaining Spanish from Peru1825= Upper & Lower Peru separate; Lower Peru named Bolivia (after Bolivar)
BoliviaHome Country: Portuguese colonyDate of Independence: 1822
Independence Leaders: - Dom Joao aka King John (King of Portugal) - Dom Pedro (son of King John)Brazillian Independence: 1807= King John flees to Brazil to escape Napoleon 1815= Napoleon defeated; King John heads back 1822= Brazilian creoles seek independence 1822= Brazilian creoles request Dom Pedro take over Brazil as ruler; King John agrees!
BrazilHome Country: Spanish colonyDate of Independence: 1821Independence Leaders: - Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (priest; leader of revolution)- Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon (priest & rebel leader) - General Augustin de Ituribe (Creole officer)- Venustiano Carranza (1st President of Mexico)Mexican Independence: 1810= Costilla starts rebellion against Spanish 1811= Costilla defeated, captured, and executed 1811= Pavon leads Mexican Revolution (next 4 years) 1815= Ituribe helps Spanish defeat Pavon 1821= Ituribe turns on Spanish & makes peace with Pavon & declares Mexican independence!Mexico
Resultsof theLatin AmericanRevolutionsNo Unity!Failure of Bolivars dream for a united South America =Civil wars erupt in many newly independent countries.Geographic barriers (mts., the Amazon, etc.) and vast distances between lands Cultural differences defeated attempts at unificationGeographic & Cultural IssuesIndependence Brought Poverty!The wars disrupted trade.
The wars devastated the cities and the countryside.
Caudillos take Over!WHO WERE THEY?:military dictators who seize power via coupMostly wealthy creole aristocrats.Followed the fight for independence.Posed as reformers.BUTonce in power overthrew govt. & took away basic human rights.Attempted improvements, but most just cared about themselves,their families and their friends [nepotism].Dependence on Foreign Nations
Foreign nations needed for investments and capitalWhat is the Message?