Rizal Proj

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ProjectRizal : The Life And Works

Submitted by : Abigail M. Villanueva EED71 / SED71

Submitted To : Ms. Ma. Lourdes G. Dorias Professor

University of Santo Tomas50

History THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS IS THE OLDEST EXISTING UNIVERSITY in Asia. In terms of student population, it is the largest Catholic university in the world in a single campus. The institution was established through the initiative of Bishop Miguel de Benavides, O.P., the third Archbishop of Manila. On July 24, 1605, he bequeathed the amount of P1,500 and his personal library for the establishment of a seminary-college to prepare young men for the priesthood. Those funds, and his personal library, became the nucleus for the start of UST and its library. The founding of the University of Santo Tomas followed on April 28, 1611. The original campus was located in Intramuros, the Walled City of Manila. UST was first called Colegio de Nuestra Seora del Santisimo Rosario, and later renamed Colegio de Santo Tomas, in memory of the foremost Dominican Theologian, St. Thomas Aquinas. On July 29, 1619 the Colegio was authorized to confer academic degrees in theology and philosophy. By November 20, 1645, Pope Innocent X elevated the college to a university. In 1680, it was subsequently placed under the royal patronage of the Spanish monarchy. In 1681, Pope Innocent XI declared it a Public University of General Studies allowing it to confer other degrees. In 1734 Pope Clement XII authorized the University to confer degrees in all existing faculties as well as all others that might be introduced in the future. The Pope also approved the curriculum in the entire field of jurisprudence. During the British invasion of Manila in 1762, the University raised four companies of students andprofessors numbering 400 men each. These saw action in battles against the British until 1764.Pope Innocent X

The expulsion of the Society of Jesus from the Philippines in 1768 left the University of Santo Tomas as the only institution of higher learning in the islands. In 1785 in recognition of the role of the students and faculty in resisting the British, King Charles III conferred the title of loyal to the university and formally granted it the status of a royal university. On May 20, 1865, a royal order from Queen Isabella II gave the University the power to direct and supervise all the schools in the Philippines and the Rector of the University became the ex-officio head of the secondary and higher education in the Philippines. All diplomas issued by other schools were approved by the Rector of the University and examinations leading to the issuance of such diplomas were supervised by the Dominican professors of UST.

Queen Isabela II of Spain

On September 17, 1902, Pope Leo XIII made the University of Santo Tomas a Pontifical University , and by 1947, Pope Pius XII bestowed upon it the title of The Catholic University of the Philippines . The University of Santo Tomas is the second university in the world after the Gregorian University in Vatican to be granted the formal title of Pontifical University. The Gregorian University was allowed to assume this title in 1873. The continuing increase in enrolment prompted the administration, in 1927 to transfer the university campus from Intramuros to its present site in Sampaloc district, which covers a total of 21.5 hectares. The Intramuros campus continued to operate until its destruction during the Second World War.

Pope Leo XIII

Since its establishment in 1611, the university academic life was disrupted only twice: once, from 1898 to 1899, during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution and the Filipino-American War, and for the second time, from 1942 to 1945, when the Japanese Occupation Forces during the Second World War converted the UST campus into an internment camp where around 2,500 allied civilians were detained. Buildings such as the Main Building, the Gymnasium and an annex building behind the Main Building called the Domestic Arts building were used as living quarters. The internees were liberated by U.S. forces on February 3, 1945. Throughout its almost 400 years of existence, The University has become the alma mater of four Filipino heroes who shaped the nation s destiny like Jose Rizal, Emilio Jacinto, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Apolinario Mabini; Philippine Presidents such as Manuel Luis Quezon, Sergio Osmea, Jose P. Laurel and Diosdado Macapagal; various Chief Justices of the Supreme Court, senators, congressmen, scientist, architects, engineers and writers, all outstanding in their chosen professions. It was visited by two popes, Pope Paul VI and Pope John Paul II, and various heads of states and foreign dignitaries. As it prepares for its 400th year by 2011, UST plans to establish campuses outside Espaa Boulevard, Manila. A campus will rise in Sta. Rosa, Laguna, and another is forthcoming in General Santos City. Through these campuses, UST commits to continue to provide Filipinos with the characteristically high quality of Catholic education. The University Seal THE PRESENT SEAL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO Tomas (UST) is likened to a shield, quartered by the Dominican Cross on which is superimposed the sun of St. Thomas Aquinas, patron saint of Catholic schools, after whom the university is named. On the upper left corner is the Papal Tiara, indicating the pontifical roots of the university. The upper right shows the lion, which is derived from the seal of Spain, indicative of royal patronage throughout the greater part of the university s centuries-old existence. The lower left quadrant contains an image of a sea-lion, from the old seal of the City of Manila, the capital of the country, symbolizing that this university is a part of the Republic of the Philippines. The rose on the lower right corner is a symbol of the patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary, under whose care the university was placed from its very beginnings. The symbols are set in gold on a field of light blue, to honor the Marian color. The cross, however, is in blackandwhite, the Dominican colors.

Evolution of Seals

1619-1773

1845-1880

Rose Vignette-1875-1909

1773-1854

Coat of Arms-19th Century

1935-1938

1734-1855

1868-1935

1937-1946

1828-1856

Minor Seal-1875-1909

1957-1983

University of Santo Tomas Hymn God of all nations Merciful Lord of our restless being Sweep with Your golden lilies This fountain of puerst light Trace with the sails of the galleons The dream beyond our seeing Touch with the flame of Your kindness The gloom of our darkest night Keep us in beauty And truth and virtues, impassioned embrace Ever Your valiant legions Imbued with undending grace

Ateneo de Manila University

History The Ateneo de Manila University began in 1859 when Spanish Jesuits established the Escuela Municipal de Manila, a public primary school established in Intramuros for the city of Manila. However, the educational tradition of the Ateneo embraces the much older history of the Jesuits as a teaching order in the Philippines.The first Spanish Jesuits arrived in the country in 1581. While primarily missionaries, they were also custodians of the ratio studiorum, the system of Jesuit education formulated about 1959. In 1950,, they founded one of the first colleges in theA street view of the original Intramuros campus of the Ateneo de Manila in 1909

Philippines, the Colegio de Manila (also known as the Colegio Seminario de San Ignacio) under the leadership of Antonio

Sedeo, S.J. The school formally opened in 1595.

I n 1621, Pope Gregory XV, through the archbishop of Manila, authorized the San Ignacio to confer degrees in theology and the arts. Two years later, King Philip IV of Spain confirmed this authorization, making the school a royal and a pontifical university, the very first university in the Philippines and in Asia. However, by the mid-18th century, Catholic colonial powers, notably France, Portugal, and Spain, had grown hostile to the Society of Jesus. The colonial powers eventually expelled the Society, often quite brutally, from their realms. The Jesuits had to relinquish the San Ignacio to Spanish civil authorities in 1768, upon their violent expulsion from all Spanish territories. Finally, under pressure from Catholic royalty, Pope Clement XIV formally declared the dissolution of the Society of Jesus in 1773.Pope Gregory XV

Pope Pius VII reinstated the Society in 1814, after almost seven decades of persecution and over four decades of formal suppression. However, the Jesuits would not return to the Philippines until 1859, almost a century after their expulsion. Authorized by a royal decree of 1852, ten Spanish Jesuits arrived in Manila on April 14, 1859. This Jesuit mission was sent mainly for missionary work in Mindanao and Jolo. However, despite almost a century away from the Philippines, the Jesuits reputation as educators remained entrenched in the minds of Manila s leaders. On August 5, the ayuntamiento or city council requested the Governor-General for a Jesuit school financed by public money.Pope Pius VII

On October 1, 1859, the Governor-General authorized the Jesuits to take over the Escuela Municipal, then a small private school maintained for 30 children of Spanish residents. Partly subsidized by the ayuntamiento, it was the only primary school in Manila at the time. Under the Jesuits, the Escuela eventually became the Ateneo Municipal de Manila in 1865 when it was elevated to an institution of secondary education. The Ateneo Municipal offered the bachillerato as well as technical courses leading to certificates in agriculture, surveying, and business. When American colonial rule came in 1902, the Ateneo Municipal lost its government subsidy. In 1908, the colonial government recognized it as a colleg