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  • SandhinirmocanaSutraFRIDAY,OCTOBER15,2010

    PROFOUNDSECRETS

    TheSadhinirmocanaStraortheSutraoftheExplanationoftheProfoundSecretsis aBuddhist scripture classified asbelonging to theYogcra orConsciousnessonly school of Buddhist thought. This stra was translated from Sanskrit intoChinesefourtimes,themostcompleteandreliableofwhichistypicallyconsideredtobethatofXuanzang.TheSadhinirmocanaStraisvariouslyromanizedas"SandhinirmocanaSutra"and"SamdhinirmocanaSutra".LikemanyearlyMahynascriptures,precisedatingfortheSadhinirmocanaStrais difficult to achieve.Etienne Lamotte believed that the text was assembled fromearlier, independent fragments. Other scholars believe that the apparentlyfragmentary nature of the early versions of the scripturemay represent piecemealattemptsattranslation,ratherthanacompositeoriginforthetextitself.Theearliestformsofthetextmaydatefromasearlyasthe1stor2ndCenturyCE.Thefinalformofthetextwasprobablyassemblednoearlierthanthe3rdCenturyCE,andbythe4thCentury significant commentaries on the text began to be composed by Buddhistscholars,mostnotablyAsaga.ThestrawaslikelycomposedinSanskrit in India,butcurrentlyexistsonlyinChineseandTibetantranslations.The Sadhinirmocana Stra is one of the most important texts of the Yogcratradition,andoneoftheearliesttextstoexpoundthephilosophyofConsciousnessonly. Divided into ten sections, the stra presents itself as a series of dialoguesbetweentheBuddhaandvariousbodhisattvas.Duringthesedialogues,theBuddhaattempts to clarify disputedmeanings present in scriptures of the earlyMahynaand the early Buddhist schools thus, the title of the stra, which promises toexpound a teaching that is "completely explicit" and requires no interpretation inordertobeunderstood.Thefirstfourchaptersofthestradiscusstheconceptofultimatetruth.Thefifthandsixthchaptersdiscuss theconceptof layavijnaor "storehouseconsciousness"andthethreecharacteristicsofphenomena(trilakana),whichrefertotheincompleteandabsolutetruthofvariousphenomena.ChaptersevenoutlinesatheoryoftextualinterpretationinlightoftheBuddha'svariousteachings,andchapterninediscussesmeditation.ThechapternineisdevotedtoadiscussionoftheBodhisattvaPath.Withinthestra,theBuddhadescribestheteachingthatheispresentingaspartoftheThirdTurningof theWheelofDharma.Assuch, theStra is intended toclarifyconfusingorcontradictoryelementsofearlierteachings,presentinganewteachingthatresolvesearlierinconsistencies.TheStraaffirmsthattheearlierturningsofthewheelthe teachings of the rvaka Vehicle (rvakayna) and the emptiness(nyat)doctrineadoptedby theMdhyamaka representedauthentic teachings,but indicates that they were flawed because they required interpretation. TheteachingsoftheSadhinirmocanaStra,ontheotherhand,requirenointerpretation

    http://sandhidharm.blogspot.com/?m=1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asangahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_languagehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meditationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etienne_Lamottehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautama_Buddhahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madhyamakahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yog%C4%81c%C4%81rahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consciousness-onlyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Turnings_of_the_Wheel_of_Dharmahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%80layavij%C3%B1%C4%81nahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yog%C4%81c%C4%81rahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Buddhist_schoolshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xuanzanghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah%C4%81y%C4%81nahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrithttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodhisattvahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodhisattvahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shravaka

  • andcanbereadliterallyaccordingtothediscoursedeliveredbytheBuddhawithinthetext.ThisreflectsanancientdivisioninBuddhisthermeneutics,atopictowhichthestradevotesanentirechapter.The Sadhinirmocana Stra was adopted by the Yogcra school as one of itsprimaryscriptures.Inaddition,itinspiredagreatdealofadditionalwriting,includingdiscussions by Asaga, Vasubandhu, Xuanzang, Woncheuk, and a large body ofTibetanliteraturefoundedonJeTsongkhapa'swritingsconcerningthescriptureOceanofDefinitiveMeaning:ATeachingfortheMountainHermit(Richosngesdonrgyamtsho),written in the firsthalfof the14thcentury, isconsidered themagnumopusofDlpopaSherapGyaltsen(12921361).TheOceanofDefinitiveMeaningisahermeneuticaltextontheissueofthedoctrineof the three turnings of the Dharmacakra, which was first codified in the SutraUnravellingtheThought(SadhinirmocanaStra).The Ocean of Definitive Meaning conveys a specific reading, understanding andinterpretationofnyatandTathgatagarbha,of thesecondandthirdturningsofthe wheel respectively. Both nyat and Tathgatagarbha are central and keyprinciplesofMahayanaBuddhism.Thisspecific readingofnyatandTathgatagarbha and the philosophical view behind it, became known as Zhentong, the keytenetoftheJonangpa.DlpopasthoughtinthisworkisahermeneuticsoftheMahayanaBuddhisttextsanddevelops teachingsofMaitreyaandYogacaramastersAsanga (4thcentury)andhisbrotherVasubandhu(4thcentury).For 150 years prior to the sacking of the Jonangmonasteries by theGelugpa, theOceanofDefinitiveMeaningwasbannedwithinthegroundsofGelugpamonasteries.JeffreyHopkins(translator)andKevinVose(editor)renderedtheOceanofDefinitiveMeaningintoEnglishasMountainDoctrine,publishedbySnowLion,Ithacain2006.A second English rendering ofThe Ocean of Definitive Meaning entitledOcean ofDefinitiveMeaning:ATeachingfortheMountainHermitisnumberedvolumesevenofTheLibraryofTibetanClassics,athirtytwovolumeseriescoveringTibetsclassicalliteraryheritage,publishedbyWisdomPublications.MindstreaminBuddhistphilosophyisthemomenttomoment"continuum"(Sanskrit:satna)ofawareness.Thereareanumberof terms in theBuddhist literature thatmaywellberendered"mindstream".The mindstream doctrine, like most Buddhist doctrines, is not homogeneous andshowshistoricaldevelopment,differentapplicationsaccordingtocontextandvarieddefinitionsemployedbydifferentBuddhisttraditions.MostBuddhist schools are committed doctrinally to the doctrine of antman (Pali:anatt), "nonself," the teaching that none of the things perceived by the sensesconstitutea"self."AsThanissaroBhikkhuexplains,"...theBuddhawasaskedpointblankwhetherornottherewasaself,herefusedtoanswer.Whenlateraskedwhy,he said that tohold either that there is a self or that there is no self is to fall intoextreme formsofwrongview thatmake thepathofBuddhistpractice impossible."ScholarHerbertV.Guntherfurtherexplains,"anindividual,whichinothersystemsisimaginedasacombinationofmatterandapermanentmentalprinciple(tman),isinrealityacontinuouslychangingstreamofthatwhichfromoneviewpointisbelieved

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeffrey_Hopkinshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasubandhuhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woncheukhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahayanahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sutra_Unravelling_the_Thoughthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhentonghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelugpahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anattahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermeneuticshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yog%C4%81c%C4%81rahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasubandhuhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharmacakrahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snow_Lionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maitreyahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%9A%C5%ABnyat%C4%81http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asangahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_turningshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_V._Guntherhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wisdom_Publicationshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Je_Tsongkhapahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_philosophyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonangpahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thanissaro_Bhikkhuhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sa%E1%B9%83dhinirmocana_S%C5%ABtrahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yogacarahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%C3%B6lpopa_Sherap_Gyaltsenhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tath%C4%81gata-garbhahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masterpiecehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_texts

  • to bematter and from another amind. However, what we call themental and thematerialoccursinaunityoforganization.Organizationissomethingdynamic."Indiscussing thecontinuityofmindorawareness in theabsenceofaself,variouswords and concepts have been employed. "Mindstream" is often used bothcolloquiallyand inmorescholarlydiscourse,aswhenDzogchenRinpochewrites"[t]he Buddhadharma is a process, one through which we train and tame our ownmindstreams.Oneapproachistogototherootofwhatwemeanby'I,'oursenseofself or individual selfidentity." According to scholar Wiliam Waldron, "IndianBuddhistsseethe'evolution'ofmindi[n]termsofthecontinuityofindividualmindstreams from one lifetime to the next, with karma as the basic causalmechanismwherebytransformationsaretransmittedfromonelifetothenext."ThisclearevocationofwhatlaterbecamecanonizedinBuddhistdiscourseasmiddleway (Mdhyamaka) is key to tendering a description of the ineffable mysteriummagnumof the"greatcontinuum"that isrendered inEnglishas"mindstream": thenondualinterpenetration of tman and antman. This 'interpenetration' or'coalescence'(Wylie:zung'jugSanskrit:yuganaddha)isjustaconceptualformation.Technically,themindstreamissubjecttoBuddha'sfourfoldreasoning,developedbyNrgjuna and known as thecatukoti, though the mindstream secures itsnomenclaturefromthefourthpada:"neitheronenormany",asthishistoricallyisthepreferredsubtlereification,butreificationnonetheless.ScholarCarolineAugustaFoleyRhysDavids(1903:pp.587588)assessesLouisdeLaVallePoussin'sworkon"mindstream"inBuddhism:

    Professorde laValleePoussin findsaverypositiveevolutionofvijnanatheoryincertainSanskritBuddhisttexts.Thetermsamtanaisjoinedtoorsubstituted for it a term which seems to approximate to our ownneopsychologicalconceptofmindasa'continuum'orflux.Andheinfersfromcertaincontextsthat thisvijnanasamtanawasregarded,notasonepermanent, unchanging, transmigrating entity, as the soul was in theatmantheory, but as an "essential series of individual and momentaryconsciousnesses," forming a "procession vivace et autonome." Byautonomoushemeans independent of physical processes.According tothisviewtheupspring