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September 10-13, 2016 New Mexico Land of Geologic Confluences and Cultural Crossroads AIPG 53 rd National Conference

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Cultural Crossroads
• Sorrell Consulting
• Cascade Drilling • FLUTe
• Vista Geoscience • New Mexico Bureau of Geology
and Mineral Resources
• Minnesota Section • New Mexico Section • Wisconsin Section
Lunch Sponsors
Table of Contents
Ben H. Parker Memorial Medal Vincent P. Amy, CPG 2035
Tequesta, Florida
J. Foster Sawyer, CPG 10000 Rapid City, South Dakota
John T. Galey, Sr. Memorial Public Service Award
Logan T. MacMillan, CPG 4560 Littleton, Colorado
Award of Honorary Membership Larry A. Cerrillo, CPG 2763
Evergreen, Colorado
Alexandria, Virginia
2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM2
Welcome! The organizing committee and the New Mexico AIPG Section would like to welcome each of you to historic Santa Fe, New Mexico and the American Institute of Pro- fessional Geologists 53rd Annual Meeting. The theme for this year’s meeting is Land of Geologic Confluences and Cultural Crossroads. We bring together geologists from across the nation and from across a broad spectrum of geologic professions: oil and gas; mineral exploration; resource development; environmental compliance and corrective action; energy fuels and many more. The di- verse program and technical sessions, coupled with the wide-ranging diversity of the field trips, will ensure that there will be plenty to interest the meeting attendees. All scheduled events are open to all registrants unless other- wise indicated.
We would like to thank the many people who worked quite diligently to put together this meeting. The AIPG headquarters staff, especially Cathy Duran and Wendy Davidson, who worked long hours planning this event. The field trip leaders and the New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources Director and State Geolo- gist, Matthew Rhoades. We have a diverse group of plan- ning committee members for this year’s annual meet- ing: Laura Crossey; Magdalena Donahue; Dave Groves; John Hawley; Ray Irwin; Karl Karlstrom; David McCraw; Steve Raugust; Adam Read; Shannon Williams; and Kate Ziegler. Without your dedication and hard work, this meeting would not be the same. Thanks also to our spon- sors, exhibitors, and participating AIPG sections.
Welcome and enjoy the conference and your time in Santa Fe!
Sincerely,
Susan von Gonten CPG-10966 Conference Co-Chair Treasurer, NM AIPG Section
John Sorrell CPG-11366 Conference Co-Chair President, NM AIPG Section
Thomas Reynolds CPG-11186 Conference Co-Chair
2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM
Saturday, 9/10
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8:00 am—12:00 noon AIPG Executive Committee Meeting Lamy Room (building across from lobby) (open to all registrants) ..............................................................
12:00 noon—1:00 pm AIPG Awards Luncheon O’Keeffe Room (building across from lobby on the left) (open to all registrants) ..............................................................
1:00 pm—4:30 pm AIPG Advisory Board Meeting Lamy Room (building across from lobby) (open to all registrants) ..............................................................
4:30 pm—5:00 pm AIPG 2016-2017 Joint Executive Committee Meeting & Business Meeting Lamy Room (building across from lobby) (open to all registrants) ..............................................................
5:00 pm—6:00 pm AIPG Foundation Meeting Meem Room (building across from lobby) (open to all registrants) ..............................................................
5:00 pm—6:00 pm NM Section Meeting Rivera A Room ..............................................................
*Breakfast is complimentary for hotel guests. If not staying at the Drury, cost for the breakfast buffet is $6.99+ tax.
Front Cover Photos Courtesy of John Sorrell - #1-Hagen, #2-Fenton
Sunday, 9/11
7:30 am—5:00 pm Registration (2nd floor) ..............................................................
7:30 am—5:30 pm Field Trip — Valles Caldera and the Los Alamos Science Museum ..............................................................
8:00 am—5:00 pm Field Trip — Sandia Crest ..............................................................
10:00 am—4:00 pm Exhibitor and Poster Set-up Palace Ballroom ..............................................................
5:30 pm—6:30 pm Student Networking Event with Professionals Lamy Room (building across from lobby) (complimentary for all registrants) ..............................................................
6:30 pm—8:00 pm Reception — Exhibit Area Open Palace Ballroom (complimentary for all registrants) Rockslide Rendezvous to follow! ..............................................................
8:00 pm—10:00 pm Rockslide Rendezvous! Come and share your musical talents or listen to live music and singing from your fellow geologists. Enjoy the Evening! Palace Ballroom (complimentary for all registrants) ..............................................................
* All field trips will depart and return to the Drury Plaza Hotel out the front lobby doors.
2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM
Monday, 9/12
7:30 am—5:00 pm Registration (2nd floor) ..............................................................
7:30 am—8:15 am Section Delegate Meeting Palace Ballroom (open to all sections) *Breakfast is on your own. ..............................................................
8:00 am—5:00 pm Field Trip — The High Road to Taos Pueblo ..............................................................
8:00 am—5:00 pm Field Trip — Paleontology and Geology of Ghost Ranch ..............................................................
8:30 am—10:00 am Plenary Session Palace Ballroom .............................................................. 8:30 am—5:00 pm Exhibits Open Palace Ballroom ..............................................................
10:00 am—10:30 am Break Palace Ballroom ..............................................................
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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM6
10:30 am—5:00 pm Technical Sessions (see Technical Session Schedule page 10) ..............................................................
12:00 noon—1:30 pm Luncheon with Keynote Speaker Kirt Kempter Palace Ballroom (complimentary for all registrants) ..............................................................
1:30 pm—3:30 pm Student Poster Contest Judging Palace Ballroom (students please be at your poster for judging) ..............................................................
3:00 pm—3:30 pm Break Palace Ballroom ..............................................................
6:30 pm—8:30 pm AIPG Awards and Dinner O’Keeffe Room (building across from lobby on the left) Dessert will follow on the Rooftop Terrace (all attendees welcome with additional fee) ..............................................................
Tent Rocks-Photo Courtesy of John Sorrell
2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM
Tuesday, 9/13
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* All trips will depart and return to the Drury Plaza Hotel out the front lobby doors.
7:30 am—3:00 pm Registration (2nd floor) ..............................................................
8:00 am—2:00 pm Field Trip — Pecos-Picuris Fault in Deer Creek Canyon ..............................................................
8:30 am—3:30 pm Exhibits Open Palace Ballroom ..............................................................
8:30 am—5:00 pm Technical Sessions (see Technical Session Schedule page 16) .............................................................
10:00 am—10:30 am Break Palace Ballroom ..............................................................
12:00 noon—1:30 pm Networking Luncheon Garden (complimentary for all registrants) ..............................................................
3:00 pm—3:30 pm Break Palace Ballroom ...............................................................
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PALACE AVENUE
Hotel Site Map
PALACE AVENUE
Drury Plaza Hotel 828 Paseo De Peralta Santa Fe, NM 87501
(505) 424-2175
Technical Sessions
— Plenary Session — • Welcome Helen Hickman, CPG - 2016 AIPG President
• Matthew Rhoades, CPG, NM State Geologist, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM
• Geology in New Mexico: Future Opportunities and Challenges
Palace Ballroom
Monday, September 12, 2016 8:30 am-10:00 am
— Poster Session — The Characterization of Abandoned Uranium Mines in New Mexico John Asafo-Akowuah, SA New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM
Development of a Low Cost, Field Portable, Geochemical Gold Test Benjamin Eppley, SA Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO
The Hydrogeologic Framework of Central Santa Fe, New Mexico - A Detailed Subsurface Perspective John Hawley, CPG Hawley Geomatters, Albuquerque, NM
Improving Ocean Stewardship through Acquisition of Oceanic Data Dina London, SA University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO
Diagenetic Processes Capable of Precipitating Potassium Feldspar Cement in the Springdale Sandstone and Fountain Formation Lindsay Mota, SA Littleton, CO
GW Contour Maps, Preparation, Interpretation, Foren- sic Perspective Mehmet Pehlivan, MEM Bays Environmental Remediation Management, Ladera Ranch, CA
Monday, September 12, 2016 10:00 am-10:30 am
Poster Session Presentations - Palace Ballroom
Poster Presenters will be Available at their Posters Monday During the Morning Break.
2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM
Technical Sessions
Poster Session Presentations - Palace Ballroom
— Poster Session —
Modeling Regional Weather Patterns in Southern Illinois by Integrating Stable Water Isotopes Found in Precipitation to Distinguish Various Controls on the Local Hydrologic Cycle Stephania Zneimer, SA Southern Illinois University, Geology Department, Carbondale, IL
Student Poster Contestants will be Available at their Posters
Monday During the Morning Break and also Monday Afternoon from 1:30 pm - 3:30 pm
to Answer Judges’ Questions • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Monday, September 12, 2016 10:30 am-12:00 pm
— Mining I — • Moderator - Donald Lumm, CPG - KY
10:30-11:00 Uranium in Missouri? - The Rest of the Story John Gustavson, CPG, Mineral Appraiser LLC, Boulder, CO
11:00-11:30
Mining Issues in New Mexico in 2016 Virginia T. McLemore, Ph.D., CPG, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM
11:30-12:00 The Potash Identification (PID) Plot for Identifying Commercial Potash Deposits Donald Hill, University of Southern California, Walnut Creek, CA
— Environmental I — • Moderator - Shanna Schmitt, CPG - MN
10:30-11:00 Hudson River Dredging Project: Promoting Continuous Improvement through Field Auditing Joseph Kraycik, MEM, Environmental Standards, Inc., Valley Forge, PA
11:00-11:30 Mercury Wars David Lawler, CPG, FarWest Geoscience Foundation, Grass Valley, CA
11:30-12:00 The Characterization of Abandoned Uranium Mines in New Mexico Ashlynne Winton, SA, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM
Session 1B - Rivera Room
Session 1A - Lamy Room
Palace Ballroom 12:00 noon-1:15 pm
2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM
Technical Sessions
10:30-11:00 Innovations in Geohazard Mitigation and Geotechnical Engineering Robert Barrett, GeoStabilization International, Grand Junction, CO
11:00-11:30 Geotechnical Engineering Considerations Regarding Climate Change in the Intermountain West Laurie Brandt, CPG, DOWL, Montrose, CO
11:30-12:00 Construction Dewatering: Investigation Methods and Approach in New York City William Canavan, CPG, HydroEnvironmental Solutions, Somers, NY; Steve Verdibello, HydroEnvironmental
Session 1C - Meem Room
Session 2A - Lamy Room
— Professional I — • Moderator - J. Foster Sawyer, CPG - SD
1:30-2:00 Adventures at a State Geological Survey Jim Burnell, Ph.D., CPG, Mineral Strategies, Golden, CO
2:00-2:30 The Changing Landscape of the Next Generation of Geoscientists Christopher Keane, Ph.D., American Geosciences Institute, Alexandria, VA
2:30-3:00 Governance in Professional Organizations William J. Siok, CPG, Tucson, AZ
Monday, September 12, 2016 1:30 pm-3:00 pm
Chupadera-Photo Courtesy of John Sorrell
Technical Sessions
2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM14
— Environmental II — • Moderator - Susan von Gonten, CPG - NM
1:30-2:00 Water Use Associated with Natural Gas Development in the Susquehanna River Basin Paula Ballaron, Susquehanna River Basin Commission, Harrisburg, PA
2:00-2:30 In-Situ Remediation of Oil-Field Brine Spills in Low-Permeable Soils Using Electrokinetics Brent Huntsman, CPG, Terran Corporation, Beavercreek, OH
2:30-3:00 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Permeation of a PVC Water Line and Cleanup via Soil Excavation and Water Line Replacement Michael McVey, CPG, Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM
Session 2B - Rivera Room
Monday, September 12, 2016 1:30 pm-3:00 pm
— Geology I — • Moderator - Shanna Schmitt, CPG - MN
1:30-2:00 Evidence for a Quaternary Lake, Western Colorado and Eastern Utah Edward Baltzer, CPG, Avant Environmental Services, Grand Junction, CO; Joe Fandrich, MEM, Grand Junction, CO
2:00-2:30
Westwater, Utah – A Present Day Ice-Dammed Lake: A Key to the Past Joe Fandrich, MEM, Grand Junction, CO
2:30-3:00 Rare Earth Element Substitution and Cathodoluminescence in Apatite from the Bear Lodge Dome, Crook County, Wyoming, USA Jason Felsman, CPG, Boulder, CO
Session 2C - Meem Room
Student Poster Contest Results will be Announced Tuesday at the
Morning Break in the Palace Ballroom
2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM
Technical Sessions
— Hydrology I — • Moderator - Doug Bartlett, CPG - AZ
3:30-4:00 Hydrogeologic Setting of Santa Fe, New Mexico—A Historic Perspective
John Hawley, CPG, Hawley Geomatters, Albuquerque, NM
4:00-4:30 A New Rapid Method for Measuring the Vertical Head Profile Carl Keller, FLUTe, Alcalde, NM
4:30-5:00 Applying Transducer Networks to Evaluate Groundwater Communication in Fractured Bedrock Jeffrey Johnson, CPG, NewFields Companies, LLC – Houston, Houston, TX
Session 3A - Lamy Room
Monday, September 12, 2016 3:30 pm-5:00 pm
— Professional II — • Moderator - Helen Hickman, CPG - FL
3:30-4:00 Do Your Homework: Conducting Community Due Diligence Linda L. Lampl, Ph.D., Lampl Herbert Consultants, Tallahassee, FL
4:00-4:30 Geoscientists Understanding Their Political World Thomas A. Herbert, Ph.D., P.G., CPG, Lampl Herbert Consultants, Tallahassee, FL
4:30-5:00 The Future Direction of AIPG: Opportunities and Challenges Aaron W. Johnson, Ph.D., MEM, AIPG Executive Director, Thornton, CO
Session 3B - Rivera Room
Technical Sessions
Tuesday, September 13, 2016 8:30 am-10:00 am
Session 4A - Lamy Room — Engineering II —
• Moderator - John Sorrell, CPG - NM
8:30-9:00 Utilization of Factor of Safety in Geotechnical Solutions Cameron Lobato, GeoStabilization International, Grand Junction, CO
9:00-9:30
Drones and Geological Consulting Michael Lawless, CPG, Draper Aden Associates, Blacksburg, VA
9:30-10:00 Oil Field Development Field Assessment: Leveraging Mobile GIS Applications to Streamline Geologic Field Data Collection Shawn Turner, P.G., CDM Smith, Houston, TX
Session 4B - Rivera Room — Environmental III —
• Moderator - David Pyles, CPG - IL
8:30-9:00 Emerging Contaminant PFOA: A Primer on Perfluorooctanoic Acid (and Other Perfluorinated Chemicals) Jean (Neubeck) Patota, CPG, Alpha Geoscience, Clifton Park, NY
9:00-9:30 The Critical Role of Hydrogeology in Investigating and Protecting Ground Water Supplies Jean (Neubeck) Patota, CPG, Alpha Geoscience, Clifton Park, NY
9:30-10:00 Vacuum Driven In-Well Stripping and Recirculations (VACCIRC) Mehmet Pehlivan, MEM, Bays Environmental Remediation Management, Ladera Ranch, CA
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Technical Sessions
— Geology II — • Moderator - Tom Reynolds, CPG - NM
10:30-11:00 Stratigraphic Alluvial Units in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada David J. Donovan, CPG, AquaPetrus LLC, Las Vegas, NV
11:00-11:30 TBA
The Interrelationship of Colorado Rifting and the Structural Colorado Plateau Vincent Matthews, Ph.D., CPG, Leadville Geology LLC, Leadville, CO
Session 5A - Lamy Room
Tuesday, September 13, 2016 10:30 am-12:00 pm
— Hydrology II— • Moderator - Larry Cerrillo, CPG - CO
10:30-11:00 Analyses of Radial Simulations of Plume Development and Confirmation of Containment of Injected Acid Gases in an Underpressured Clastic Carbonate Reservoir Alberto Gutierrez, CPG, Geolex, Inc., Albuquerque, NM
11:00-11:30 Sedimentology and Paleohydrology of the Brushy Basin Member, Morrison Formation in the Henry Basin, Utah Jeffrey Johnson, CPG, NewFields Companies, LLC – Houston, Houston, TX
11:30-12:00 Hydrogeology Studies at the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Stacy Timmons, Hydrogeology and Aquifer Mapping Program Manager, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM
Session 5B - Rivera Room
— Mining II / Energy — • Moderator - Jean (Neubeck) Patota, CPG - NY
1:30-2:00 The Rock That Cried Silver Tears - The Early Jurassic Springdale Sandstone and its Unusual Precious Metal Mineralization at Silver Reef, UT Revisited Uwe Kackstaetter, Ph.D., MEM, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO
2:00-2:30 Assessment of Remaining Oil and Gas Potential Within the Desert Creek Formation of Papoose Canyon Field, Paradox Basin, Western Colorado Jessica Davey, SA, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO
2:30-3:00
History of North American Potash Mining Peter Smith, CPG, RESPEC, Rapid City, SD
Session 6B - Rivera Room
Session 6A - Lamy Room
Tuesday, September 13, 2016 1:30 pm-3:00 pm
— Geology III — • Moderator - John Sorrell, CPG - NM
1:30-2:00 New and Old High Resolution Investigation Tools Applied to Remediation Design Characterization. It’s a Contact Sport John Fontana, P.G., President and CEO Vista Geoscience, Golden, CO
2:00-2:30 Hydrologic and Geochemical Conditions in the Animas River Watershed Dennis McQuillan, New Mexico Environment Department, Santa Fe, NM
2:30-3:00 TBA
Technical Sessions
— Environmental IV — • Moderator - Larry Cerrillo, CPG - CO
3:30-4:00 Using Hydrogeologic Data in Crop and Range Management Practices in Northeastern New Mexico: The Union County Hydrogeology Project Kate Zeigler, CPG, Zeigler Geologic Consulting, LLC, Albuquerque, NM
4:00-4:30 Confirmation of a Conceptual Site Model Using Multimedia Compound Specific Isotope Analysis Seema Turner, Ramboll Environ International Corporation, Los Angeles, CA
4:30-5:00 A Method for Monitoring of Fugitive Fluids from Hydraulic Fracturing Operations Ian Sharp, FLUTe, Albuquerque, NM
Thank You for Attending! Safe Travels Home!
Session 7A - Lamy Room
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Conference Abstracts
Conference Presented by
2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM
Abstracts
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NEW MEXICO
John Asafo-Akowuah, SA, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM, [email protected] nmt.edu; Ashlynne Winton, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM; Virginia T. McLemore, CPG, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources (NMBRMR), Socorro, NM
Not only has mining played a significant role in the United States, but for hundreds of years mining has aided in the eco- nomic and social development of New Mexico as early as the 1500s. One of the earliest gold rushes in the West was in the Ortiz Mountains (Old Placers district) in 1828, 21 years before the California Gold Rush in 1849. At the time the U.S. General Mining Law of 1872 was written, there was no recognition of the environmental consequences of direct discharge of mine and mill wastes into the nation’s rivers and streams or the impact of this activity on the availability of drinking water sup- plies, and riparian and aquatic habitats. Miners operating on federal lands had few to no requirements for environmental protection until the 1960s and 1970s, although the dumping of mine wastes and mill tailings directly into the nation’s rivers was halted by an Executive Order in 1935. It is important to recognize that these early miners were not breaking any laws, because there were no laws to break.
In New Mexico, there are tens of thousands of inactive or abandoned mine features in 274 mining districts and prospect areas (including coal, uranium, metals, and industrial miner- als districts and prospect areas). Many of these mine features do not pose any physical or environmental hazard and many more pose only a physical hazard, which is easy but costly to remediate. However, a complete inventory and prioritization for reclamation has not been accomplished in New Mexico. Some of these inactive or abandoned mine features can pose serious health, safety and/or environmental hazards.
Many state and federal agencies have mitigated the physical safety hazards by closing these mine features, but very few of these reclamation efforts have examined the long-term chem- ical effects from these mine sites. There is still potential for environmental effects long after remediation of the physical hazards, as found in several areas in New Mexico; two exam- ples are the Terrero and Questa mine. Some of these observa- tions only come from detailed electron microprobe studies that are not part of a government remediation effort.
The objective of our research is to develop a better proce- dure to inventory and characterize inactive or abandoned
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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM22
mine features in New Mexico, using the Lucky Don and Little Davie uranium mines in the Churapedero mining district, So- corro County, New Mexico as case study. Hazard ranking of mine openings and features, using BLM ranking methodology will be utilized for most sites. We will also suggest remedial activities that would manage or mitigate dangers to the en- vironment and public health, while taking into consideration historical, cultural and wildlife issues and mineral resource potential.
WATER USE ASSOCIATED WITH NATURAL GAS DEVELOPMENT IN THE
SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN
Paula Ballaron, Susquehanna River Basin Commission, Harrisburg, PA, [email protected]
Ten years into the Marcellus Shale gas boom, the Susquehan- na River Basin Commission (SRBC) has examined its activities surrounding its management of water use by the natural gas industry.
The SRBC had quickly set policies and regulations aimed at balancing development with environmental protection for the withdrawal and use of water resources by the industry hun- gry for the gas trapped in rock as deep as 9,000 feet below ground.
How did the SRBC meet the challenges posed by the rapid rise of interest from this multibillion-dollar industry, its attendant environmental issues, and the public’s concerns?
This presentation, based on a recent report released by the SRBC, will evaluate:
• regulatory responses taken to address this new, and pre- viously unfamiliar, energy industry activity;
• water use characteristics of the natural gas industry op- erating within the Basin;
• water quality monitoring activities conducted in re- sponse to industry activity; and
• the industry’s compliance with the SRBC’s regulations.
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EASTERN UTAH
Edward Baltzer, CPG, Avant Environmental Services, Grand Junction, CO, [email protected] com; Joe Fandrich, MEM Grand Junction, CO, [email protected]
Numerous, often small-scale unconsolidated sediments and landslide deposits primarily located between 4,400 and 6,000 feet elevation are scattered throughout western Colorado and eastern Utah. These include thick sequences of fine-grained sediment overlying river gravel, nearly flat surfaces formed by these fine-grained sediments, numerous toreva blocks, other landslide features, and thick gravel accumulations in drainag- es located at or near specific elevations (proposed shorelines). Many of these features have been previously mapped as al- luvial fans, overbank sediments, slope wash, loess, aeolian, or other non-lacustrine deposits, or as bedrock. However, the deposits and features to be discussed appear more likely to be of lacustrine origin. Taken together, they provide evidence of the existence of one or more lakes that had several static elevations. The amount of apparent post-deposition incision, soil development, and other relative age-dating techniques indicate a likely mid- to late-Quaternary age for the deposits and therefore for the lake or lakes. Sediments were deposited in pre-existing valleys, indicat- ing that the general topography of these areas was formed prior to lake filling. It also appears that the lake drained rap- idly enough to erode lake features located at elevations be- low about 4,400 feet. Lake drainage would have incised areas downstream, likely deepening the canyon topography pres- ent in the modern middle and lower Colorado River drain- age. No specific evidence for dams forming the lake(s) has been identified, with such evidence possibly removed through post-failure erosion. Possible dam mechanisms and potential lake geometries and volumes will be discussed.
INNOVATIONS IN GEOHAZARD MITIGATION AND
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
Robert Barrett, GeoStabilization International, Grand Junction, CO, [email protected]
This presentation is a summary of 50 years of geotechnical research in geohazard mitigation (landslides, rockfall, swell- ing soils), retaining walls, bridge abutments, open bottom box culverts, and reinforced soils. This research was performed by
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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM24
Colorado DOT, the US Forest Service, the Federal Highway Administration and several agencies and universities. Expen- ditures on this research effort exceeded $25 million dollars and much of the information, albeit generic, has yet to be implemented.
The presentation will include a discussion of the FHWA GRS/ IBS bridge construction initiative and a discussion on Geosyn- thetically Confined Soil, a better technology for wall construc- tion than Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE). Earthquake Wings, a new and better way to build abutments in seismic regions, will be presented. New scour prevention and mitiga- tion methods will be introduced, as will new techniques and technologies for box and bridge rehabilitation and replace- ment.
The presentation will conclude with a description of inno- vations in soil nailing and how all these technologies using closely spaced inclusions are related.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE INTERMOUNTAIN WEST
Laurie Brandt, CPG, DOWL, Montrose, CO, [email protected] dowl.com
There have always been geotechnical engineering challenges in mountainous terrain due to steep slopes, complex geologic settings, geologic hazards, and limited areas suitable for de- velopment, but those challenges have increased dramatically due to the effects of climate change. The increased intensity of storm events, changing freeze/thaw cycles, rapid snowmelt and runoff, prolonged drought, invasive species, stressed vegetation, and wildfires are all examples of events or con- ditions that have become more common throughout the intermountain west. These conditions increase the intensity and frequency of geologic hazards such as flooding, debris flows/mudflows, rockfall, landslides and avalanches. Even ex- pansive soils become more problematic with regular cycles of prolonged drought and saturated conditions inherent with a warming environment. As geologists and geotechnical en- gineers we need to consider not just the present conditions, but what the landscape will look like in the future considering the effects of climate change, so that sites are properly de- signed with respect to exposure to potential geologic hazards, groundwater fluctuations, and changes in soil moisture. We need to rethink what is meant by the “100 year event” and that floods are not entirely confined to the river channels and immediate floodplain, but can involve entire hillsides. We also need to consider the ephemeral nature of trees, which may not be able to provide the protective cover from rockfall and
2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM
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potentially unstable slopes that they have in the past. It is our responsibility as geologic and geotechnical professionals to understand the effects of climate change on the regions in which we work so that we can apprise our clients of those potential hazards, allowing them to make informed decisions for mitigation and design.
ADVENTURES AT A STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Jim Burnell, Ph.D., CPG, Mineral Strategies, Golden, CO, [email protected]
A state geological survey is a direct connection between the citizens of a state and science. The Colorado Geological Sur- vey has always touted itself as an organization that is open and accessible, ready to provide information and to answer questions for citizens. That can be an adventure.
I had the privilege to finish out my professional career with the Colorado Geological Survey. As Colorado’s Minerals Ge- ologist, I heard from people around the country with ques- tions and issues pertaining to resources - metals, industrial minerals, and uranium. When I dealt with the public, the topics ranged from simple questions and inquiries to very intrigu- ing (and sometimes mysterious) geologic questions. Some of them I am still pondering.
Where do I go mineral hunting? Where should I pan for gold? Is my deposit suitable for use as frac sand? How did this min- eral get where I found it? Look at this rock or thing that I found … what is it? The experience generated many good sto- ries and I’ll share as many as I have time for.
CONSTRUCTION DEWATERING: INVESTIGATION METHODS AND APPROACH IN NEW YORK CITY
William Canavan, CPG, HydroEnvironmental Solutions, Somers, NY, [email protected]; Steven Verdibello, HydroEnvironmental Solutions, Somers, NY
During large construction projects in New York City, ground- water is often an issue that has to be dealt with for a mul- titude of reasons. Specifically, groundwater can impede the installation of subsurface structures, such as foundations and elevator pits for large buildings. Due to the thriving real es- tate market in New York City, there is an increasing incentive
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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM26
for developers to utilize subsurface space that is often below the groundwater table. The value of a New York City property coupled with very high construction costs related to real es- tate development make effective dewatering methods essen- tial to the successful completion of a project.
Considering the varied geology and associated aquifer char- acteristics across the five boroughs of New York City, in or- der to properly and safely lower the groundwater table in the vicinity of any existing surface and/or subsurface structure, a certain level of hydrogeological understanding is needed prior to implementing dewatering. This understanding is typically obtained by conducting hydrogeological field work, which includes installing test wells, short-term pumping tests and in-situ permeability testing (i.e. slug tests). Additionally, it is essential that the underlying geology be understood. This is accomplished through field testing including continuous split spoon soil sampling and logging of unconsolidated material, and coring of shallow bedrock when encountered.
After the appropriate field work is compete, pertinent hy- drogeological parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity (K), transmissivity (T), storativity (S), and well capacity, can then be determined via analytical methods. The analytical meth- ods that are most often used include computer models such as MODFLOW and AQTESOLV. Using these readily available computer models allows the hydrogeologist to calculate K, T, and S quickly, efficiently, and accurately. Once K, T, and S are known, a dewatering system can be designed and tailored to the required application. For example, a site-wide founda- tion dewatering application or a limited areal extent system around an elevator pit. The dewatering system approach is also determined and designed at this juncture; for example, one composition could be a well point system using submers- ible pumps versus one using a suction pump.
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ASSESSMENT OF REMAINING OIL AND GAS POTENTIAL WITHIN THE DESERT
CREEK FORMATION OF PAPOOSE CANYON FIELD, PARADOX BASIN,
WESTERN COLORADO
Jessica Davey, SA, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, [email protected]; Barbara EchoHawk, Denver, CO
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David J. Donovan, CPG, AquaPetrus LLC, Las Vegas, NV, [email protected]
A formal stratigraphy was proposed for the basin-fill of the Las Vegas Valley in the late 1990s. The units are allostrati- graphic units, which have been recognized in the North Amer- ican Code of Stratigraphic Nomenclature since 1983, and in all subsequent versions. Allostratigraphic units are defined by bounding discontinuities, and specifically recommended for this type of depositional setting. It is also important to specify allostratigraphic and stratigraphic units are co-equal in rank and application.
Historically, one fossiliferous; spatially, temporally and litho- graphically restricted Quaternary (Recent - Pleistocene) unit was defined in the 1960s. And a Miocene unit, better defined east of Las Vegas. Multiple investigations from the 1990s through 2010s, using; amongst other data, radiometric and geophysical, indicate; that nearly all of the surface deposits are mid-Pleistocene or younger. Moreover the basin-fill may exceed 5,000 meters, and a large portion of the basin fill is Pleistocene, Pliocene, and unrecognized Miocene. The late Pleistocene Las Vegas Formation is becoming well known, due to its importance as part of the recently designated 22,600 acre Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument.
The proposed formal stratigraphy applies to the late Neogene and Pleistocene deposits and uses the data available in the last quarter century. An overview, of which, will be presented. As well as; the utility to multiple Geoscience disciplines, of the proposed system.
DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST, FIELD PORTABLE, GEOCHEMICAL GOLD TEST
Benjamin Eppley, SA, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO, [email protected]; Uwe Kackstaetter, Ph.D., MEM, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO
Field prospecting for gold has often involved labor intensive and time consuming processes to produce semi-accurate as- sessments of a prospect’s economic viability. Geochemical prospecting has historically required the dissemination of gold from an abundance of waste material through panning, sluicing, and other relatively inefficient methods, followed by the utilization of hazardous materials and laboratory facilities to obtain an accurate estimate of the economic potential of
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a deposit and subsequently determine the viability of pur- suing that wealth. The development of a rapid and precise microchemical gold test, geochemical field prospecting and exploration for placer and near surface gold deposits can be streamlined and expedited to allow for a highly accurate and simple assessment of a resource’s potential, while sub- sequently minimizing costs and maximizing efficiency for the future producer.
By utilizing and refining an antiquated procedure known as the “Purple of Cassius” technique, as well as employing mod- ern day atomic absorption spectroscopy, a standardized color spectrum based on gold concentration can be developed. In conjunction with this standardized spectrum, less hazardous, and highly portable materials that are readily available, can theoretically be utilized to digest and react a finely powdered sample material to achieve the purple coloration, should de- tectable gold be present. This colored solution can then be compared to a standardized color spectrum chart to establish an accurate grade by converting parts per million to grams per ton, and allow for GPS tracking and mapping of a resourc- es economic potential in a much more efficient and produc- tive manner.
WESTWATER, UTAH A PRESENT DAY ICE-DAMMED LAKE:
A KEY TO THE PAST
Joe Fandrich, MEM, Grand Junction, CO, [email protected]
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RARE EARTH ELEMENT SUBSTITUTION AND CATHODOLUMINESCENCE IN
APATITE FROM THE BEAR LODGE DOME, CROOK COUNTY, WYOMING, USA
Jason Felsman, CPG, Boulder, CO, [email protected] gmail.com
The Bear Lodge Mountains are an extension of the Black Hills of South Dakota, located north of the town of Sundance in northeastern Wyoming. The Bear Lodge Dome is in the south- ern Bear Lodge Mountains and is composed of Tertiary, alka- line intrusions surrounded by tilted Phanerozoic sediments. Rare earth element (REE) mineralization is hosted by carbon- atite dikes and veins, which cut the bulk of the alkaline sili- cate intrusions, but are post-dated by minor alkaline silicate intrusions. Gold and additional REE mineralization are associ- ated with fenitization, which is alkali-ferric iron metasomatism associated with carbonatite magmatism. Rare earth element enrichment is identified in several accessory minerals, most notably fluorite and apatite. Apatite is a common accessory mineral in sedimentary rocks, igneous rocks, and veins in the Bear Lodge Dome. Locally, apatite can be the dominant host for REE.
Rare earth element substitution in apatite grains in the Bear Lodge Dome causes distinct and bright cathodoluminescence (CL). The color of luminescence is controlled by the relative enrichment of REE. Laser Ablation – Inductively Coupled Plas- ma – Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of naturally occurring apatite with different colors of CL are shown to cor- relate with distinctive REE enrichment patterns. In particular, igneous apatite in the Bear Lodge Dome can have lavender or yellow CL, indicating that igneous apatite grains can be dominantly enriched in either La to Nd, or Sm to Lu. Early intrusions host lavender CL apatite, and late intrusions host lavender and yellow CL apatite, suggesting an evolution from light rare earth element (LREE; La to Gd) to heavy rare earth el- ement (HREE; Tb to Lu) enrichment in the igneous system. Hy- drothermal apatite has yellow and orange CL, and is enriched in Sm to Lu. Host lithology appears to have no control on the CL or REE distribution of apatite. It is possible that there is a mineralogical control on the amount of each REE that can be accepted into apatite, but whole rock REE distributions match REE distributions of apatite, when apatite is the dominant REE host. Therefore, fluid chemistry is likely the dominant control on REE distribution in hydrothermal apatite.
There is a district wide zonation of REE enrichment noted at Bear Lodge, with a core area of LREE enriched carbonatite dike swarms surrounded by a halo of hydrothermally altered rocks, which are enriched in HREE and gold. Cathodoluminescence examination of apatite allows for efficient identification of
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samples that have been exposed to relatively HREE rich fluids, and might represent an area with potential for gold and HREE mineralization.
NEW AND OLD HIGH RESOLUTION INVESTIGATION TOOLS APPLIED TO
REMEDIATION DESIGN CHARACTERIZATION - IT’S A CONTACT SPORT
John Fontana, P.G., President and CEO Vista Geoscience, Golden, CO
The recent improvements in the collection of high resolution subsurface data has improved our ability to surgically apply in-situ injection technologies and utilize in-situ treatment products with better results. Selecting the right combination investigation tools, remediation products, and application methods can provide the quicker results often required for brownfield projects.
Qualitative high resolution tools such as Membrane Interface Probes (MIP), Optical Image Profiler (OIP), Hydraulic Profiling Tool (HPT), and Electrical Conductivity (EC) are combined with quantitative high resolution vertical sampling of saturated soil cores and ground water to obtain data required for an adequate Remedial Design Characterization (RDC). Once ac- quired, an equally high resolution treatment can be designed. Some treatment reagents will act slower while others can re- act quickly to clean up the site, providing it is applied in the correct dosage and makes contact. Using a qualified applica- tion contractor with the right equipment along with perfor- mance monitoring is the most important step. It’s a contact sport – If the treatment does not contact the contaminant, the site will fall short of remediation goals.
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John Gustavson, CPG, Mineral Appraiser LLC, Boulder, CO, [email protected]
The Author proposed his uranium deposit model at the AIPG 2009 Annual Meeting, in Uranium Exploration Following the Petroleum System Approach. All components (volcanic source rock, U mobilization, down-dip groundwater system, reservoir sands and reducing U traps) appeared to be present in the Northern Mississippi Embayment, based on published literature.
After securing key lease positions in Mississippi County, Mis- souri, the Author’s company entered a careful study of each of the five components, both in the field and with help from the research laboratories of the University of Memphis.
Subsurface mapping was facilitated by the availability of a Memphis-based, restricted core archive gathered by a Phillips predecessor company exploring for lignite. Next, a seventy- foot section of the regionally pervasive Porters Creek clay for- mation, locally known as Fuller’s earth, was retrieved from the walls of a major quarry, courtesy Nestlé-Purina.
The lab, under Dr. Dan Larsen, Geology Chair at Memphis, performed X-ray diffraction and petrographic analysis with student help. Both clay mineral origins and diagenesis were sought. Trioctahedral smectite and clinoptilolite were readily detected.
In parallel, regional groundwater sampling was conducted from shallow irrigation wells in the Holocene Mississippi aqui- fer. Samples were also gathered from deeper municipal wells in the down-dipping Tertiary aquifers, ultimately feeding ar- tesian wells in Arkansas. Tom Van Arsdale, the AIPG Colorado Section President-Elect, participated in the sampling.
As a result, the location of deep faulting in the northern ex- tension of the New Madrid Seismic Zone was correlated with geochemical data, confirming both the required anoxic en- vironment and the potential South Texas-type uranium fault traps.
Simultaneously, N.I. 43-101 filing with the Toronto Ventures Exchange (TSX-V) had been accomplished by Mohammed Alief, Qualified Person, and funding for the targeted drilling phase seemed assured. However, the Fukushima tsunami pushed out all timing of uranium exploration.
In the meantime, the final interpretation of the clay mineral analyses forever changed the knowledge of the Porters Creek clay and its volcanogenic origin.
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CONFIRMATION OF CONTAINMENT OF INJECTED ACID GASES IN AN
UNDERPRESSURED CLASTIC CARBONATE RESERVOIR
Alberto Gutierrez, CPG, Geolex, Inc., Albuquerque, NM, [email protected]; James C. Hunter, Geolex, Inc., Albuquerque, NM
Geolex sited, permitted and oversaw the installation of a dry acid gas injection (AGI) well into the mid-lower Permian Leon- ard Bone Springs carbonate in the Permian Basin of the south- western US in 2005-2007. The preliminary characterization of the reservoir using 2-D seismic and local well control was used to identify the injection targets and provide the basis for permitting. Following the drilling and completion of the ini- tial well, traditional and specialized geophysical logging tools, sidewall core analyses and long term injection testing were used to characterize the reservoir. Based on this pre-injection work, Geolex utilized a simple radial displacement model to predict plume migration over time during operation. The well has been injecting on a largely continuous basis since 2010 at an average injection rate of approximately 3.9 MMCFD (1.1 MMCMD) of treated acid gas (TAG), containing approximately 82% CO2 and 18% H2S. In 2013, Geolex permitted a second well to be placed into the same reservoir at the same facility located approximately 450 feet (140 meters) away. Based on the calculations derived from TAG volume injected cumula- tively, the plume front would have reached the new well loca- tion by the time when the well was completed.
Drilling, completion and testing of this new well were com- pleted in March of 2015. Initial testing and logging show that both pressure and chemical fronts from the first well have migrated though the reservoir to the location of the second well. This new well incorporates permanent bottom hole P/T measurement instruments. These instruments allow the moni- toring of the observed plume fronts from the original well as they reach the new well. In July 2015, a scheduled workover was performed on the original well, at which time identical bottom hole instrumentation were emplaced. These paired instruments are now monitoring “real time” P/T data during injection of either or both wells or during periods of transi- tion where one well is shut down or restarted. Initial and cur- rent bottom hole temperature and pressure from both wells has been analyzed and compared to evaluate the condition of the reservoir, given 5 years of injection of approximately 4MMCFD (1.13 MMCMD). Initial testing has demonstrated that although acid gases from the existing well have migrated to the second well, no acid gas has penetrated the cap rock.
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This paper presents the results of these ongoing investiga- tions and provides recommendations for the improvement of tools used to evaluate potential migration during evaluations done for initial evaluation, design and permitting purposes within these types of reservoirs. Based on the results of these analyses, this presentation will also discuss additional useful considerations in developing and designing similar systems for prolonged, safe, efficient and economical operation. This process will allow a greater degree of confidence in predic- tions of plume migration and long term reservoir behavior using data not usually available when AGI systems are initially permitted and installed.
HYDROGEOLOGIC SETTING OF SANTA FE, NEW MEXICO—A HISTORIC PERSPECTIVE
John Hawley, CPG, Hawley Geomatters, Albuquerque, NM, [email protected];
The heart of the City of Santa Fe (COSF), “The City Different,” is La Villa de Santa Fé, founded as a Spanish colonial-provincial capital on the banks of El Río de Santa Fé in 1609. The place ranks high in pioneering developments in classic geology as well as North American history. Of note is its piedmont plain location at the base of the Santa Fe (SF) Range in the Española Basin of the Rio Grande (RG) rift tectonic province, and in a transition zone between the semi-arid Basin and Range, and sub-humid Southern Rocky Mountain physiographic prov- inces. Major urban landscape terrain features are the Santa Fe River Valley, which cuts through remnants of a Tertiary alluvi- al-fan piedmont, and the river’s headwaters in the SF Range of the southern Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Peak elevation of the upper-river basin is 12,408 ft amsl, and the elevation of central COSF is about 7,200 ft. The vital roles played by the terraced river valley and its interlinked acequias in surface- water supply, aquifer recharge, and environmental concerns still resonate. Population growth, and associated environ- mental and water-supply problems started with arrival of the Santa Fe and Denver & Rio Grande Railroads in the 1880s, and automobile-based tourism in the 1920s. However, things got really rolling in late 1942 when the AT&SF Railyards became the staging area for Manhattan Project construction of the “Secret City on the Hill” at Los Alamos.
The post WWII era of federal-state collaborative water-re- sources investigations was initiated by the “Geology and Wa- ter Resources of the Santa Fe Area, New Mexico,” published in 1963 as USGS Water-Supply Paper 1525. This seminal, multi-disciplinary assessment of ground- and surface-water resources was conceived and headed by Zane Spiegel (then USGS geohydrologist) and Brewster Baldwin (NM Bureau
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Mines geologist). While concepts have been improved at lo- cal scales by subsequent geological, geophysical and hydro- chemical studies, the fundamental hydrogeologic interpreta- tions recorded in WSP-1525 have stood the test of time (e.g. Hudson and Grauch, editors, 2013, GSA Special Paper 494).
The southern Española Basin is the type area of Spiegel and Baldwin’s Santa Fe Group (SFG), the primary intermontane- basin fill deposit throughout the RG rift. The type SFG in- cludes two formation-rank units: the Lower SFG-Tesuque Fm (Tt-mostly Lower Miocene piedmont facies) and the Upper SFG Ancha Fm (Pliocene and Lower Pleistocene fan [QTa] and ancestral-river [ARSF] facies). The Tesuque-Lithosome S (Tts) fan facies (500 to 2,500 ft thick beneath central COSF) forms the area’s only significant aquifer system. The Lower SFG was deformed during a major interval of RG rift tectonism, starting in the Mid-Miocene, that produced most of today’s basin and range structural relief and local 10-20° westward dip of Tes- uque beds. Initiation of an ARSF system in the Late Miocene produced an extensive erosion surface, informally named the post-Tesuque Erosion Surface (pTES), which is veneered with up to 200 ft of mostly unsaturated Ancha Fm and Quater- nary SFRv-terrace (Qtu) deposits. Examples of the hydrostrati- graphic and structural framework of the central COSF area are included in a companion Poster Presentation by Hawley and Swanson.
THE HYDROGEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK OF CENTRAL SANTA FE, NEW MEXICO – A DETAILED SUBSURFACE PERSPECTIVE
John Hawley, CPG, Hawley Geomatters, Albuquerque, NM, [email protected]; Baird H. Swanson, Swanson Geoscience, LLC, Albuquerque, NM
Most previous hydrogeologic work in the City of Santa Fe (COSF) area has been done at 1:24,000-1:48,000 map scales, with emphasis on surface mapping and geophysical surveys. This presentation focuses on a 2 mi2 area of central COSF where a logged-borehole database allows preparation of 1:3,000-scale hydrogeologic maps and fence-diagram grids based on records from four exploratory and public water- supply wells (PWSWs) with depths ranging from 1200 to 2660-ft; and more than 150 monitor-well boreholes at about 20 environmental-problem (E-P) sites, some of which are in the 300 to 500 ft depth range. While some significant anthro- pogenic contamination of subsurface waters dates back to the railroad’s arrival in 1880, current serious problems relate to rapid urban expansion since 1940, driven in part by use of the SF Railyards District as a staging area for Secret City construc- tion at Los Alamos.
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Research support has had two primary sources: Unrestricted grants from the Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) for studies throughout the area surrounding their former San- ta Fe Generating Station (SFGS) Site; and INTERA, Inc. for in- vestigations at the EPA/NMED Targeted Brownfields/Santa Fe River (SFRv) Assessment Site. This has allowed development of a large number of illustrations that portray hydrogeologic- framework components at three levels.
1. A conceptual reconstruction of the original extent of the Tesuque Fm-Lithosome S (Tts) fan and its ancestral Santa Fe Range sediment-source area on a 2013 Google Earth® image-base provides an expanded spatial and temporal per- spective of our study area. The inset Google ® diagram of an alluvial fan in a Basin and Range setting portrays an ideal- ized internal fractal fabric of alternating distributary-channel and floodplain facies. This image is complemented by a 1:1 block diagram (1:6,000 scale) that illustrates the basic hy- drogeologic framework of the 7,000 x 10,000 ft study area to a 3,500 ft amsl base elevation. 2. The basic hydrogeologic framework is illustrated by 1:3,000-scale maps and a 1,000 ft fence-diagram grid of 26 cross-sections (1:1 and 5:1) on a 2 ft contour, NAD83 NM State Plane Coordinate base. Surface distribution of Santa Fe Gp (SFG) formations and Santa Fe River Valley-fill deposits, and the mostly-buried topography of a post-Tesuque Erosion Surface (pTES—10 ft contours) are schematically illustrated on the maps. The cross sections show basic hydrostratigraphic and structural relationships of Tts fan deposits to about 500 ft bgs, details of the buried pTES to- pography, and cut and fill relationship in capping SFG-Ancha Fm and river-terrace deposits. 3.The area’s southwest sec- tor includes the Railyards District and former PNM Santa Fe Generating Station (SFGS) Site, both of which contain known or suspected groundwater-contamination sources. Because increased density of deep monitor wells, the 18-section grid spacing was reduced to 500-ft. Controls on saturated and un- saturated flow at the SFGS Site include post-4/1951 pumping effects of an adjacent deep PSWS well. A 7,000 ft long, 3,000 ft deep cross section, with potentiometric-surface drawdown timelines, schematically illustrates the hydraulic/hydrologic impacts of about 62 years of pumping on an ever-diminishing saturated thickness of westward-dipping Tts fan-distributary channel conduits.
GEOSCIENTISTS UNDERSTANDING THEIR POLITICAL WORLD
Thomas A. Herbert, Ph.D., P.G., CPG, Lampl Herbert Consultants, Tallahassee, FL, [email protected] com
We as geoscientists live in a very political and often conten-
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tious world as we interact with other people. The understand- ing this political environment can begin in the realm of office “politics” and segue to include dealing with colleagues to lo- cal, state and federal government interactions and meetings with clients and the public. Geoscientists are often placed in situations where an understanding of the political process is critical and we need to interact in a “politic” manner. This dis- cussion will help understand the need to interact with others in an effective manner. We can be expected to deal with the public to impart the science and world view of geoscience to enable decisions to make our lives safe and productive.
THE POTASH IDENTIFICATION (PID) PLOT FOR IDENTIFYING COMMERCIAL
POTASH DEPOSITS
Donald Hill, University of Southern California, Walnut Creek, CA, [email protected]
The mineralogy of McNutt “Potash” member of the Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico, is extremely complex, consisting of:
• Six radioactive potash minerals, only two of which are commercial.
• Radioactive, non-potash “Claystones” and “Marker Beds”. • Four non-radioactive evaporite minerals, one of which
interferes with potash milling chemistry.
Because of this complexity, traditional wireline and Logging While Drilling Potash Assay techniques, such as gamma ray log to core assay transforms, linear programming, and multi- mineral analyses, are not effective.
Numerous oil and gas wells in the area have cased hole gamma ray and neutron logs through the Salado Evaporite, run for stratigraphic and structural correlation. The logs from these wells could provide a rapid screening database, if used properly.
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SOILS USING ELECTROKINETICS
Brent Huntsman, CPG, Terran Corporation, Beavercreek, OH, [email protected]; Christopher Athmer, Terran Corporation, Beavercreek, OH
Applied electrokinetics provides an effective in-situ remedia- tion technology alternative for cleaning up brine contamina- tion in heterogeneous or low-permeability soils. The tech- nology exploits the physio-chemical characteristics of brine constituents by electrokinetic transport of ions in pore water soil between field-installed electrodes. Electromigration, driv- en by an applied direct current (DC) electric field, mobilizes the brine charged ionic species through soil toward the elec- trodes where they are removed or precipitated. Contamina- tion removal is further assisted by the flushing action of silts and clays from electroosmotic flow within the vadose or satu- rated zones.
A full-scale pilot application of electrokinetic technology to remediate an inadvertent brine spill from an operating oil and gas well in the Bakken Formation is reviewed. Physical and chemical site conditions that influenced the design, installa- tion and operation of a predominately electro-migration re- mediation system are discussed and summarized. Since the remediation system just came online in the spring of 2016, the overall effectiveness of the system will be assessed for the first six months of operation.
APPLYING TRANSDUCER NETWORKS TO EVALUATE GROUNDWATER
COMMUNICATION IN FRACTURED BEDROCK
Jeffrey Johnson, CPG, NewFields Companies, LLC – Houston, Houston, TX, [email protected]; Irina Mamonkina, NewFields Companies, LLC – Houston, Houston, TX
This presentation discusses the results of a multi-point net- work of transducers in a fractured and folded granitic gneiss complex. The transducer network measures both water level and temperature. By comparing these attributes through time, spatial trends are observable, documenting distinct anisotro- pic groundwater regimes. These flow regimes are character- ized by sharp boundaries that are apparently produced by lithologic changes. The transducer data provide a detailed
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perspective of the changes in hydraulic conditions due to pre- cipitation events, seasonal trends, and infiltration. The moni- toring results document that “snap-shot” quarterly monitor- ing programs provide limited information on the groundwater conditions in complex fractured bedrock settings.
SEDIMENTOLOGY AND PALEOHYDROLOGY OF THE BRUSHY
BASIN MEMBER, MORRISON FORMATION IN THE HENRY BASIN, UTAH
Jeffrey Johnson, CPG, NewFields Companies, LLC – Houston, Houston, TX, [email protected]
The Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in the Henry Basin is of Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous age and consists of fluvially deposited volcanic and nonvolcanic sedi- ments. The member in the study area has a thickness of 60 to 90 meters and is composed of two facies, a bentonitic mudstone facies and a conglomerate-sandstone facies. The bentonic mudstone facies is the primary lithology, comprising approximately two-thirds of the member.
The vitric sediments of the Brushy Basin Member record the influx of volcanic ash over an extensive alluvial plain. Rhyolitic to dacitic volcanic ash inundated the alluvial plain and source area approximately 145 m.y. The ash, consisting primarily of glass shards and pumice, was derived from volcanism in the eastern Great Basin, approximately 200 to 300 kilometers to the west. The vitric sediments were the probable source rocks for the uranium deposits present in the lower Morrison For- mation in the Henry Basin.
THE ROCK THAT CRIED SILVER TEARS- THE EARLY JURASSIC SPRINGDALE
SANDSTONE AND ITS UNUSUAL PRECIOUS METAL MINERALIZATION
AT SILVER REEF, UT REVISITED
Uwe Kackstaetter, Ph.D., MEM, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO, [email protected]
The light-gray Early Jurassic Springdale Sandstone Member of the Moenave Formation at historic Silver Reef and Harris- burg, now Leeds, UT, is a place of one of the most unusual precious metal deposits in the world. Void of any recogniz-
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able hydrothermal activity, this sheet like, 30 m thick, fluvial sandstone, exposed in a syncline at Leeds, contains the rare minerals cerargyrite (AgCl; Horn Silver), bromargyrite (AgBr), and iodargyrite (AgI) in mineable quantities. These minerals are finely disseminated and are usually invisible to the naked eye. Discovered in 1866, it was at first believed to be a hoax because of the purely sedimentary nature of the host rock. However, the Silver Reef mining district came to produce over 7 million ounces Ag at a value of close to $8,000,000 from 1875 to 1909. After the ore waned mining experienced a brief recurrence as uranium was extracted from the same lithology during the Cold War period.
The first scientific landmark investigation of the area in order to understand this unusual mineralization was completed in 1953 by the late Paul Dean Proctor. Later researchers have tried to tackle the mystery. While multiple hypothesis abound, the process of the unusual ore mineralization has never been completely answered and the last papers about the district’s geochemistry were published in the 1990’s.
However, modern sophisticated instrumentation, such as portable x-ray fluorescent (XRF) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with advanced energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), have opened novel possibilities in geo- chemical analysis. Therefore, the mystery of the Springdale Sandstone has been revisited through a variety of undergrad- uate research projects associated with the new geology de- gree at Metropolitan State University of Denver.
This presentation will pay homage to Paul D. Proctor and will familiarize the audience with one of the most unusual pre- cious metal deposits in the world. The current status of some exiting undergraduate research projects associated with this prospect will be introduced to facilitate the connection be- tween the Silver Reef student presentations exhibited at this conference.
THE CHANGING LANDSCAPE OF THE NEXT GENERATION OF GEOSCIENTISTS
Christopher Keane, Ph.D., American Geosciences Institute, Alexandria, VA, [email protected]; P. Patrick Leahy, Ph.D., CPG, American Geosciences Institute, Alexandria, VA
As we progress through this most recent commodity price cycle, emerging trends that were thought to be occurring within the rapidly growing geoscience community have be- come increasingly evident as growth rates have stabilized and external factors have teased out both expected and unex- pected systemic responses. With the completion of the 2015
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Geoscience Student Exit Survey and the parallel enrollment and degrees surveys, a number of trends are becoming clearly identifiable. Most interesting is the decline in undergraduate retention and/or extension of time to degree. We suspect we are seeing increased attrition as the “froth” in the growth of earlier enrollments leave degree programs in response to per- ceived decreased employment prospects in the energy sector. Yet, undergraduate enrollments continue to climb aggressive- ly, but these are directly attributable to a number of online geology degree programs initiating, some of which have more than 1000 declared majors. Though the online degree programs increase reach and accessibility of the profession, the continued aggressive adoption of flipped classrooms by instructors in traditional environments is narrowing the func- tional gap between traditional courses of study and wholly online programs.
Even with the slowdown in the energy industry, hiring of new graduates has remained brisk. This hiring has been helped by recent improvements in the minerals industry and ongoing strength in the environmental and engineering industry, but energy-focused schools are reporting most of their gradu- ates are still successfully securing employment in the energy sector. Some of this is believed to reflect attrition of either less capable or less committed students, thus right-sizing the supply-demand relationship, as well as feedback cycles of what is needed to be successful in securing and retaining employment.
In addition, we will take a look at some emerging trends that are likely to impact the feedstock of future geoscientists and how the community can become engaged to ensure that evo- lution is well informed.
A NEW RAPID METHOD FOR MEASURING THE VERTICAL
HEAD PROFILE
Carl Keller, FLUTe, Alcalde, NM, [email protected]
This presentation describes a new technique for measur- ing the vertical head profile in a formation intersected by a vertical borehole. The procedure uses both the continuous transmissivity profile obtained by the eversion of a flexible borehole liner into an open borehole and the inversion of the same liner from the borehole. The method is possible because of the continuous transmissivity profile described by Keller, et al, 2014. The reverse head profile (RHP) method is performed using a stepwise inversion of the borehole liner (the reverse of the liner eversion into the borehole to measure the trans- missivity). As each interval of the borehole is uncovered by inversion of the liner, the head beneath the liner is allowed
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to equilibrate. By measuring the equilibration head and using the transmissivity measured for each increment uncovered by the inverted liner, the formation head can calculated for each increment of the formation uncovered. Once the formation head distribution has been measured, the flow into and out of each interval of the open borehole can be calculated. From that flow calculation, the open borehole flow can be calcu- lated for comparison with a borehole flow meter measure- ment. The head profile measured by the RHP method is com- pared directly to measurements with a multi-level sampling system sealed in the borehole. The results are compared to a head profile measured in a FLUTe multi-level system with the borehole sealed by a continuous liner. The utility of the measurement is that it provides information on the location of aquitards, the identification of individual aquifers, artesian in- tervals, extreme gradients, and at very low cost. The RHP and associated transmissivity profile are helpful to the design of multi-level systems for long term measurements of head and water quality. The main advantage of the RHP measurement is that it can be performed, with 10 foot resolution, in a 300 ft borehole in the same day as the transmissivity profile which is performed with the same FLUTe flexible liner.
HUDSON RIVER DREDGING PROJECT: PROMOTING CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT THROUGH
FIELD AUDITING
Joseph Kraycik, MEM, Environmental Standards, Inc., Valley Forge, PA, [email protected]; David Blye, Environmental Standards, Inc., Valley Forge, PA; Robert Gibson, General Electric, Fort Edward, NY
In November 2015, General Electric (GE) completed dredging of approximately 40 miles of the Upper Hudson River north of Albany, New York to remove polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)- impacted sediments. The dredging project began in 2009 and resulted in over 300,000 pounds of PCBs being removed from the river. The remedial action was conducted under a Consent Decree between GE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Completion of the Upper Hudson Dredging Project is a successful engineering and logistical feat that US EPA has publicly called “an historic achievement.”
A robust Remedial Action Monitoring Program (RAMP) was designed and implemented that included monitoring of the near-field and far-field water column, air, and sediment qual- ity along with fish monitoring. The purpose of the RAMP was to monitor water and fish PCB concentrations during reme- diation; to assess post-dredging PCB sediment concentra- tions; to monitor suspended solids and other water quality
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parameters to evaluate if remediation caused changes that could be harmful to aquatic biota or exceed drinking water standards; and to monitor air quality in the vicinity of remedial actions. Although remediation is complete, GE will continue to monitor the environmental condition of the river for the foreseeable future.
Environmental Standards, Inc. (Environmental Standards) was retained by GE to conduct third-party quality assurance (QA) oversight of the RAMP. One important aspect of Environ- mental Standards’ scope-of-work included field auditing of GE’s contractors during implementation of RAMP activities. Environmental Standards Auditors conducted field audits of each monitoring activity on an annual or semi-annual basis and additional audits were conducted if unusual situations warranted. The purpose of the field audits was to compare monitoring activities to the requirements and procedures set forth in the project Remedial Action Monitoring Quality As- surance Project Plan (RAM QAPP) in order to identify items that had the potential to impact data quality. Audit observa- tions and findings were shared with GE’s contractors as well as the larger project team with the intention of both highlighting activities being conducted in accordance with the RAM QAPP and correcting non-conforming activities in order to promote continuous program improvement.
This presentation will provide a summary of the dredging project that highlights the field audit program and its chal- lenges and successes. In addition, specific examples of RAMP field audit observations and findings will be presented along with a discussion of how the project team worked collabora- tively together to address these quality issues and continually improved the program.
DO YOUR HOMEWORK: CONDUCTING COMMUNITY DUE DILIGENCE
Linda L. Lampl, Ph.D., Lampl Herbert Consultants, Tallahassee, FL
Look beyond the obvious. Every natural resource project in- cludes people – as well as geology. Who are these individuals and groups? The project system includes clients, host commu- nities, regulatory agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and the media, each of which bring collections of human beliefs, values, philosophies, needs, and expectations. Individuals and or groups may support, express skepticism, or actively oppose a project. So, how do you deal with this? Do your homework! Identify – and monitor – issues, expectations, and processes in your project area. This session discusses the elements of a community due diligence and uses mind maps to illustrate three mini-cases that depict the human element in geology projects.
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MERCURY WARS
David Lawler, CPG, FarWest Geoscience Foundation, Grass Valley, CA, [email protected]; Hank Meals, Grass Valley, CA
The current controversy over mercury contamination and the use of specialized mining equipment (gold suction-dredges) in the Sierra Nevada region between miners and environ- mentalists has now been simmering for over a decade, but its roots lie buried deep in mining conflicts between hydraulic mining and the Sacramento Valley farming communities of the 19th century. The present ban on specialized mining equipment including suction dredges that directly discharge mine tailings into the rivers and streams of the Sierra region, represents the second time in California history that the state legislature has banned the use of a particular mining technology without the imple- mentation of adequate environmental safeguards. The discharge of hundreds of millions of cubic yards of hy- draulic mine tailings has caused repeated widespread flood- ing and adversely affected ship navigation. The widespread mercury contamination has created toxic effects within the biological food chain of this region in a multitude of animal species, as well as indirectly affecting human health in chil- dren and pregnant women. The author advises that the rival factions work together to create effective and practical solutions. While future regional- scale environmental cleanup efforts will be both expensive and time consuming to implement, there is no better time in California history than now for the development of innovative technologies to cost-effectively recover mercury. Inventors within the small scale-recreational mining commu- nity now have an opportunity to develop new types of rec- reational mining equipment that do not directly discharge tailings into the rivers and streams and potentially add to California’s existing toxic mercury contamination problems.
DRONES AND GEOLOGICAL CONSULTING
Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) technology (i.e., drones) has revolutionized aerial mapping. Aerial topographic data can be collected more cost-effectively and efficiently than using traditional fixed wing aircraft. Instrumentation such as LiDAR and temperature sensors can be mounted on the UAS to al-
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low additional data collection for topographic and geologic mapping as well as hazardous materials reconnaissance. Case studies will explore potential applications of this technology to geological consulting, including solid waste management, quarry operations and groundwater exploration. Other uses of UAS in the solid waste industry include aerial photography and video capabilities for marketing, aerial topography for air space evaluation and compaction rate analysis, and tempera- ture surveys for evaluation of landfill gas collection systems. As this technology continues to develop, additional applica- tions will certainly become apparent.
UTILIZATION OF FACTOR OF SAFETY IN GEOTECHNICAL SOLUTIONS
Cameron Lobato, P.E., Geostabilization International, Grand Junction, CO, Peter MacKenzie, CPG, GeoStabilization International, Grand Junction, CO, [email protected]; Stephen Harrison, Daedalus Drone Services, Austin, TX; Corey Mislinski, GeoStabilization International, Pittsburgh, PA
The factor of safety concept is indispensable to engineering practitioners. Factor of safety is simply the ratio of capacity to load. A factor of safety of 1.0 means the approximation of load is equal to the approximation of capacity. Increasing fac- tor of safety to 2.0 means the expected capacity is twice the expected load.
The concept is frequently misunderstood, misapplied and misrepresented. This latent confusion leads to excessive con- fidence in a design as well as excessive cost due to overdesign and unwarranted criticism of appropriate designs. Those who make decisions based on factor of safety need to understand what it means and what it does not mean.
Using engineering analysis, this presentation demonstrates that a wide range of safety factors can be calculated for a given design problem, all of which could be considered rea- sonable. This presentation will further review the costs associ- ated with demanding an excessive factor of safety.
Two examples will be used to illustrate the associated costs of increasing the factor of safety. Engineering analysis will il- lustrate the design parameter changes that will need to be employed to increase each solution’s factor of safety and the associated non-linear cost increase for each design. This pre- sentation will illustrate that 1) factor of safety alone is not suf- ficient to select an appropriate design; 2) site conditions and risk assessments must also be considered to effect an appro- priate solution for the specific application; 3) factor of safety mandates can increase costs but may not increase safety.
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IMPROVING OCEAN STEWARDSHIP THROUGH ACQUISITION OF
OCEANIC DATA
Dina London, SA, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO, [email protected]
The health of the oceans is directly tied to the prosperity of human civilizations. The oceans are the global conveyor belt of heat and a repository of carbon. They also provide the habitat for oxygen creating organisms and provide a source of food. It is imperative to monitor the oceans to mitigate predictions of increasing extremities of weather and climatic events furthered by changes in the oceanic ecosystem.
Collaborative techniques using stationary and mobile devices overcome issues of underwater data interference. Subma- rine cables, multi node sensors, acoustic modems, and satel- lite transmissions create an infrastructure with capabilities to monitor and potentially mitigate environmental stewardship efforts. Areas of focus include the environment, military sur- veillance, disaster prevention, offshore exploration, pollution monitoring, and vessel location.
The ability to connect stationary underwater networks to mobile devices across the vast ocean will advance the under- standing of the abiotic, biotic, and anthropogenic interests. Researchers will be able to collect data in areas previously un- touched. Due to the advancement into international waters, effective immersion will need to be coupled with a clear, ef- ficient, and globally accepted approach.
THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OF COLORADO RIFTING AND THE
STRUCTURAL COLORADO PLATEAU
Vincent Matthews, Ph.D., CPG, Leadville Geology LLC, Leadville, CO, [email protected]
An analysis of recent GPS data indicates the Colorado Plateau is currently rotating in a clockwise direction. Past analyses of paleomagnetic data have come to similar conclusions. This clockwise rotation of the structural Colorado Plateau is com- patible with, and can explain, two directions of rift features located in central and northern Colorado: north-south and west-northwest.
These rift systems are indicated by geologic features (Neo- gene faulting, basaltic volcanism, and rift deposits), GPS data, and stress field data. They also indicate that the Rio Grande Rift does not die out in southern Colorado.
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MINING ISSUES IN NEW MEXICO IN 2016
Virginia T. McLemore, Ph.D., CPG, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM, [email protected]
New Mexico’s mineral wealth is among the richest of any state in the U.S. Petroleum is the most important extractive industry in NM in production value. In 2014, NM ranked 5th in oil pro- duction, 7th in gas production, 12th in coal production, and 13th in nonfuel minerals production. Most of the state’s production comes from oil, gas, coal, copper, potash, industrial minerals (potash, perlite, cement, zeolites, etc.) and aggregates. Other important commodities include molybdenum, gold, uranium, and silver. New Mexico is fortunate to have low (<190°F), moderate (190 to 300°F), and high (>350°F) temperature geo- thermal resources.
However, companies face many challenges to bring a deposit into production. Legacy issues of past mining activities form negative public perceptions of mining. Some mines have the potential to contaminate the environment; the Gold King un- controlled release into the Animas River is a recent example.
In NM, there are thousands of inactive mine features in 274 mining districts (including coal, uranium, metals, and industri- al minerals districts). Many pose only a physical hazard, which is easy, but costly to remediate. Although most of these mine features pose little or no environmental or stability threat, many of them have not been inventoried or prioritized for reclamation. At the time the General Mining Law of 1872 was written, there was no recognition of the environmental con- sequences of discharge of mine and mill wastes or the impact on drinking water, and riparian and aquatic habitats. Miners operating on federal lands had little or no requirement for environmental protection until the 1960s-1970s, although the dumping of mine wastes and mill tailings directly into rivers was halted by an Executive Order in 1935. It is important to recognize that these early miners were not breaking any laws, because there were no laws to break.
Today, more than 30 Federal environmental laws cover all as- pects of mining in an attempt to prevent such accidents, in- cluding the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Comprehensive Envi- ronmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund act), and the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, among others. Mine safety has improved. Today, one important aspect of mine planning in a modern regulatory setting is the philosophy, actually, the require- ment, in most cases, that new mines and mine expansions must have plans for closure. This philosophy is relatively new and attempts to prevent environmental accidents common in the past. Mine development of the distant and even not-too- distant past commonly did not consider mine closure, except
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perhaps to plan for safeguards and contingencies. Mine clo- sure planning is necessary not only for safety reasons, but also for environmental reasons.
Other issues face today’s mining companies. Economic min- eral deposits are harder to locate because the easy deposits have been mined. Lower commodity prices results in closed mines and very little exploration. In some areas, there are conflicts between exploration and potential mining and pro- tecting the area for wilderness aspects (e.g., Otero Mesa) and water use (e.g., Grants uranium district, Copper Flat mine). Fi- nally there is a shortage of young geologists and engineers to explore for, develop, mine, permit these commodities and to evaluate their effect on the environment.
HYDROLOGIC AND GEOCHEMICAL CONDITIONS IN THE
ANIMAS RIVER WATERSHED
Dennis McQuillan, New Mexico Environment Depart- ment, Santa Fe, NM, [email protected]
The Animas River originates in the mountains above Silver- ton, CO and flows 126 miles south into the San Juan River in Farmington, NM. The Animas River and its associated alluvial aquifer are used as sources for public and private water sup- ply, and for irrigation and livestock.
The Animas River receives base flow from groundwater, and is largely a gaining stream where groundwater flows from the surrounding valley into the river. During winter when irriga- tion ceases, however, the water table declines in some areas, creating losing-stream conditions locally. Pumping wells also may cause water to flow from the river into the aquifer.
Water quality in the Animas River has been adversely impacted by multiple sources of contamination including naturally oc- curring acid rock drainage (ARD), discharges and spills of min- ing and milling waste, human and animal waste, and nutrients. Alluvial groundwater typically contains higher concentrations of total dissolved solids compared to Animas River water, of- ten with elevated manganese and iron, and sometimes with detectable thermogenic gas originating from deeper bedrock units.
The mountains surrounding Silverton were extensively frac- tured, altered, and intruded by Miocene hydrothermal fluids that emplaced sulfur-rich, base-metal ore bodies containing copper, lead, silver, molybdenum, and zinc. ARD began with the natural bio-geochemical oxidation of pyrite and other sul- fide minerals that released sulfuric acid and metals into the watershed over geologic time, and was exacerbated by ex-
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tensive mining.
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, after mining had ceased, bulkheads were installed in lower levels of some workings in and near the Gold King Mine to control ARD seepage. After the bulkheads were installed, the water table in the mountain rose by approximately 1,000 feet and flooded previously dry mine workings located at higher elevations. Flooding of the mine workings created ARD seeps that did not exist prior to installation of the bulkheads.
On August 5, 2015, a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) work crew digging into a collapsed GKM adit triggered a mine-water blowout, reported by EPA to be more than 3 mil- lion gallons of acidic mine water containing 1 million pounds of metals. High levels of dissolved and total metals were mea- sured in the river as the spill migrated downstream with most metals occurring in the suspended fraction. The distribution of contaminated sediments deposited in the watershed remains poorly defined. Re-suspension of contaminated sediment has caused total metals concentrations to increase again during storm events and spring runoff, creating a long-term concern for public water systems that must treat the con