Seismic Processing and Interpretation

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Data acquisition, processing and interpretation in the field of Geophysics.

Text of Seismic Processing and Interpretation

  • Industrial Training Report

    Student Industrial Project (SIP)

    OFFSHORE GEOHAZARD ASSESMENT

    USING HIGH RESOLUTION 2D SEISMIC SURVEY AT PROPOSED WELL LOCATION

    DATE RELEASED:

    14th August 2014

    Written By:

    MUHAMMAD HASIF SYAZWAN B. SHAMSUL

    14912

    PETROLEUM GEOSCIENCE

    Industrial Training at:

    FUGRO GEODETIC (MALAYSIA) SDN. BHD.

  • Industrial Training Report

    Muhammad Hasif Syazwan 14912 1

    1.0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    Alhamdulillah, all praises be to Allah S.W.T, The Most Gracious, and The Most Merciful for

    His Guidance and Blessing.

    Firstly, the author would like to express special appreciation to Universiti Teknologi

    Petronas (UTP) and Fugro Geodetic Malaysia Sdn Bhd (FGMSB) for providing the

    opportunity to undergo a truly remarkable Industrial Training experience. Special thanks is

    dedicated to FGMSB Deputy General Manager FGMSB, Mr Abd Hanan Ahmad Nadzeri and

    Human Resource Executive, Mrs. Norlaili Abd Hamid, as well as Center of Student Industrial

    CSIMAL.

    Special acknowledgement is also given to the authors Host Company Supervisor, Mr.

    Ricardo Caringal Jr; Geophysical Reporting Manager for his kindness and assistances during

    the eight months of industrial internship. Not forgetting, a mentor and a friend, Staff

    Geophysicist, Mr. Juzaili Azmi, for his guidance, support and advice in completing the

    Geophysical Seismic Processing and Interpretation project. Last but not least, to all staffs of

    Processing and Reporting Department FGMSB for their meaningful advises.

    Last but not least, the author also would like to thank UTP Supervisor, Mr. Jasmi B. Ab.

    Talib for spending his precious time to visit the host companies, give advice and evaluate

    authors performance during the industrial training at FGMSB. This achievement would not

    have happened without the support from all of the mentioned above.

    Thank you to all.

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    Muhammad Hasif Syazwan 14912 2

    2.0 TABLE OF CONTENT

    Content Page Numbering

    Host Company Verification Statement

    1.0 Acknowledgement

    2.0 Table of Content

    3.0 List of Tables

    4.0 List of Figures

    5.0 Industrial Training Project Report

    1

    2

    3

    3

    5

    5.1 Abstract and Introduction 5.1.1 Objectives

    5.1.2 Scope of Study

    5.1.3 Problem Statement

    5.1.4 The Relevancy of Project

    6

    12

    13

    15

    16

    5.2 Background and Literature Review

    5.2.1 Feasibility of Project within Scope and

    Time Frame

    5.2.2 Critical Analysis Literature

    17

    17

    18

    5.3 Methodology

    5.3.1 Research Methodology

    5.3.2 Key Milestone

    5.3.3 Gantt Chart

    5.3.4 Tools/Equipment Required

    21

    21

    22

    23

    24

    5.4 Results and Discussions

    5.4.1 Project Deliverables

    5.4.2 Data Gathering / Data Analysis

    5.4.3 Findings

    32

    32

    62

    83

    5.5 Conclusion and Recommendation

    5.5.1 Impact

    5.5.2 Relevancy to the Objectives

    5.5.3 Suggested Future Work for Expansion

    and Continuation

    84

    84

    85

    86

    5.6 Safety training and value of the practical

    Experience

    5.6.1 Lesson Learnt and Experience gained

    5.6.2 Leadership, Teamwork and individual

    activities

    5.6.3 Business values, ethics and management

    skills

    5.6.4 Problems and challenges faced and

    solution to overcome them

    87

    87

    88

    89

    90

    6.0 Reference 91

    7.0 Appendices 92

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    Muhammad Hasif Syazwan 14912 3

    3.0 LIST OF TABLES

    TABLES

    Table 1: Analogue Survey Parameters Table 2: Seismic Survey Parameters Table 3 : Parameters Table for Static Correction Table 4: Predicted Intermediate Lithology at the Proposed and Revised Well Location. Table 5: Summary of Fault Intersections at the Proposed and Revised Well Locations. Table 6: Amplitude Anomalies and Risk Assessment. Table 7: Gas Probability for the Proposed and Revised Well Locations. Table 8: Summary of Drilling Constraints Below the Proposed and Revised Well Surface Locations.

    4.0 LIST OF FIGURES

    FIGURES

    Figure 1: Multibeam Data with Coalesced Pockmark and Isolated Pockmarks Figure 2: Side Scan Sonar Image with Pockmark Cluster. Figure 3: Multibeam Echo Sounder Image with Carbonate Outcrops. Figure 4: Side Scan Image of the Hamilton Shipwreck. Figure 5: Sub-bottom Profiler Showing Buried Channels. Figure 6: Sub-bottom Profiler Image of Faults. Figure 7: Offshore Geohazard Diagram. Figure 8: Demultiplexed Data of Line 10 shows the raw data that has been sequenced Figure 9: Example of the raw data after static correction. Figure 10: Zoomed-in Raw SHOT file for Line 10. Figure 11: Line 10 Near Trace Gather Display. Figure 12: Line 10 Equalised Brute Stack. Figure 13: Line 10 True Amplitude Brute Stack. Figure 14: Trial of Time Varied Gain(TVG). Figure 15: Normal Move-out gather. Figure 16: Muting of Line 10 Figure 17: Denoised True Amplitude Stack for Line 10. Figure 18: Image of Shot Gather during velocity picking. Figure 19: Image of Energy Samblance during Velocity Picking. Figure 20: Stack of the seismic line.

    Figure 21: Trial of Different Gaps and Operator Lengths. Figure 22: Deconvolved True Amplitude Stack; 40ms operator length; 8ms gap. Figure 23: Deconvolved Equalised Stack; 40ms operator length; 8ms gap. Figure 24: Image of a before / after migrated stack. Figure 25: Line 10 Finalised Seg-Y(Equalized). Figure 26: Line 10 Finalised Seg-Y(True Amplitude) Figure 27: Example of equalized seismic section, SW-NE mainline ID-2D-L10, passing near the

    proposed well location. Figure 28: Example of equalized seismic section, NW-SE cross line ID-2D-L59, passing near the

    proposed well location..

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    Muhammad Hasif Syazwan 14912 4

    Figure 29: Example of equalized seismic section, NW-SE cross line ID-2D-L61, passing near the revised well location.

    Figure 30: Example of relative amplitude seismic section, SW-NE mainline ID-2D-L10, passing near the proposed well location.

    Figure 31: Example of relative amplitude seismic section, SW-NE mainline ID-2D-L10, passing near the proposed well location(Top 1.1 ms TWTT BSL.

    Figure 32: Example of relative amplitude seismic section, NW-SE cross line ID-2D-L59, passing near the proposed well location.

    Figure 33: Example of relative amplitude seismic section, NW-SE cross line ID-2D-L59, passing near the proposed well location(Top 1.1 ms TWTT BSL).

    Figure 34: Example of relative amplitude seismic section, NW-SE mainline ID-2D-L61, passing near the revised well location.

    Figure 35: Tophole Prognosis For The Revised Well Location Figure 36: Tophole Prognosis For The Revised Well Location

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    Muhammad Hasif Syazwan 14912 5

    5.0 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING PROJECT

    5. 1 Abstract & Introduction

    Geohazards have always been a major concern especially in regard of the offshore industry.

    Every year, unwanted complications occur in the oil and gas industry which result in

    catastrophic monetary and human lives lost. According to the International Center of

    Geohazards 2010; a geohazard is defined as a geological state, which represents or has the

    potential to develop further into a situation leading to damage or uncontrolled risk.

    Geohazards are found in all parts of the earth and are always related to geological conditions

    and geological processes, either recent or past. Important offshore geohazards include slope

    instability and mass wasting processes (including debris flows, gravity flows); pore pressure

    phenomena (e.g. shallow gas accumulations, gas hydrates, shallow water flows, mud diapirism

    and mud volcanism, fluid vents, pockmarks) seismicity. Excess pore pressure development

    appears a critical aspect in most of the offshore geohazards.

    Again based on ICN, 2010; Submarine slope failure is the most serious threat on both

    local and regional scales. In addition to damaging offshore installations, slope failures may also

    cause devastating tsunamis. ICG personnel have for a long period been involved in the studies

    of the Storegga Slide area, offshore Mid-Norway. These studies were triggered by the

    discovery of Europe's third largest gas reservoir Ormen Lange within the slide scar.

    One of the underlying factors in the occurrence basically revolves around pore pressure

    as it directly controls the displacement of sediments and materials related to sea-bottom

    movement. However, the ability to accurately measure, monitor and predict pore pressures in

    offshore sediments is limited and rarely done. Therefore, it is important to improve our

    understanding of excess pore pressure genesis (processes, migration), accurate measurement

    and its implications.

    Below are some of the common geohazards encountered in the oil and gas industry.

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    Muhammad Hasif Syazwan 14912 6

    Seabed features- isolated pockmarks, pockmark cluster, coalesced pockmark, seabed

    depressions, carbonate, coral, debris and shipwreck.

    Isolated pockmark: It is caused by the degassing or dewatering process which creates hollow

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