THE SOCIAL ISSUES OF INDIA & MALASIA EDUCATION
MALAYSIA Duration of compulsory education National Education budget Primary Languages 9 years
INDIA 8 years
System Type Established Compulsory Education
Rs. 52057 crore RM30 billion (USD10 (US$10.56Billion) billion) Hindi , English or state Malay, English, Languages Mandarin Chinese, Tamil Federal, state, private National April 1, 2010 1956
Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. Child education is compulsory. The Nalanda University was the oldest university-system of education in the world. Western education became ingrained into Indian society with the establishment of the British Raj. Education in India falls under the control of both the Union Government and the states, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others. The various articles of the Indian Constitution provide for education as a fundamental right. Most universities in India are controlled by the Union or the State Government. India has made progress in terms of increasing primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population. India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to the India. Much of the progress especially in Higher education, Scientific research has been credited to various public institutions. The private education market in India is merely 5% although in terms of value is estimated to be worth $40 billion in 2008 and will increase to $68 billion by 2012. However, India continues to face stern challenges. Despite growing investment in education, 25% of its population is still illiterate; only 15% of Indian students reach high school, and just 7% graduate. As of 2008, India's post-secondary high schools offer only enough seats for 7% of India's college-
age population, 25% of teaching positions nationwide are vacant, and 57% of college professors lack either a master's or PhD degree. As of 2011, there is 1522 degree-granting engineering colleges in India with an annual student intake of 582,000, plus 1,244 polytechnics with an annual intake of 265,000. However, these institutions face shortage of faculty and concerns have been raised over the quality of education.
MALAYSIA:Education in Malaysia is overseen by two government ministries. The Ministry of Education handles matters pertaining to pre-school, primary school, secondary school and post-secondary school. Matters regarding tertiary education are dealt with by the Ministry of Higher Education. Although education is the responsibility of the federal government, each state has an Education Department to coordinate educational matters in its territory. The main legislation governing education is the Education Act of 1996. Education may be obtained from the multilingual public school system, which provides free education for all Malaysians, or private schools, or through home schooling. By law, primary education is compulsory. As in many AsiaPacific countries such as the Republic of Korea, Singapore and Japan, standardized tests are a common feature.
CONCLUSION:As far as the report is concern, The Indian Government Spends 10.56 billion US dollars in education, while, the Malaysian government spends 10.00 US billion dollars in education. And in India the literacy is 74%, while in Malaysia the literacy is Heir the India like 95 %.
HEALTH:Parameters Children underweight percentage Hospital Beds Life Expectancy at Birth Maternal Mortality rate Tobacco consumption in adults % Total Expenditure on health as % GDP MALAYSIA 18% ranked 1st 0.79 per 1000 people 63.5 years 540 per 100,000 16% 6.1% INDIA 1% ranked 94th 2.09 per 1000 people 73.3 years 41 per 100,000 26.4% 3.8%
Healthcare Issues SITUATION OF INDIA Malnutrition47% of Indias children below the age of three are malnourished, almost twice the statistics of sub-Saharan African region of 28%. World Bank estimates this figure to be 60 million children out of a global estimated total of 146 million. Although Indias economy grew 50% from 20012006, its child-malnutrition rate only dropped 1%, lagging behind countries of similar growth rate. Malnutrition impedes the social and cognitive development of a child, reducing his educational attainment and income as an adult. These irreversible damages result in lower productivity.
High infant mortality rateApproximately 1.72 million children die each year before turning one. The under five mortality rate and infant mortality rate indicators have been declining comparing years 1970 and 2002 (202 to 90 & 192 to 68 per thousand live births respectively). However, this rate of decline is slowing. Reduced funding for immunization leaves only 43.5% of the young fully immunized. Infrastructures like hospitals, roads, water and sanitation are lacking in rural areas. Shortages of healthcare providers, poor intra-partum and newborn care, diarrhea diseases and acute respiratory infections, also contribute to the high infant mortality rate.
DiseasesDiseases such as dengue fever, hepatitis, tuberculosis, malaria and pneumonia continue to plague India due to increased resistance to drugs. India is ranked 3rd among the countries with the most number of HIV-infected. Diarrhea diseases are the primary causes of early childhood mortality. These
diseases can be attributed to poor sanitation and inadequate safe drinking water in India.
Poor sanitationAs more than 122 million households have no toilets and 33% lack access to latrines, over 50% of the population (638 million) defecates in the open. This is relatively higher than Bangladesh and Brazil (7%) and China (4%). Although 211 million people gained access to improved sanitation from 1990 2008, only 31% uses them. 11% of the Indian rural families dispose of child stools safely whereas 80% of the population leave their stools in the open or throw them into the garbage. Open air defecation leads to the spreading of diseases and malnutrition through parasitic and bacterial infections. Inadequate safe drinking water.
Healthcare today in MalaysiaMalaysia has a widespread system of health care. It implements a universal healthcare system, which co-exists with the private healthcare system. Infant mortality rate a standard in determining the overall efficiency of healthcare in 2005 was 10, comparing favorably with the United States and Western Europe. Life expectancy at birth in 2005 was 74 years. Healthcare in Malaysia is divided into private and public sectors. Malaysian society places importance on the expansion and development of healthcare, putting 5% of the government social sector development budget into public healthcare an increase of more than 47% over the previous figure. This has meant an overall increase of more than RM 2 billion. With a rising and aging population, the Government wishes to improve in many areas including the refurbishment of existing hospitals, building and equipping new hospitals, expansion of the number of polyclinics, and improvements in training and expansion of telehealth. Over the last couple of years they have increased their efforts to overhaul the systems and attract more foreign investment. The Malaysian health care system requires doctors to perform a compulsory three years service with public hospitals to ensure that the manpower in these hospitals is maintained. Doctors are required to perform 4 years including 2 years of horsemanship and 2 years government service with public hospitals throughout the nation, ensuring adequate coverage of medical needs for the general population. Foreign doctors are encouraged to apply for employment in Malaysia, especially if they are qualified to a higher level. There is still, however, a significant shortage in the medical workforce, especially of highly trained specialists; thus, certain medical care and treatment are available only in large cities. Recent efforts to bring many facilities to other towns have been hampered by lack of expertise to run the available equipment. As a result certain medical care and treatment is available only in large cities.
Government policy and actionThe Malaysian government places importance on the expansion and development of health care, putting 5% of the government social sector development budget into public health carean increase of more than 47%
over the previous figure. This has meant an overall increase of more than RM 2 billion. With a rising and aging population, the Government wishes to improve in many areas including the refurbishment of existing hospitals, building and equipping new hospitals, expansion of the number of polyclinics, and improvements in training and expansion of tele health. A major problem with the health care sector is the lack of medical centers for rural areas, which the government is trying to counter through the development of an expansion of a system called "tale-primary care". Another issue is the over prescription of drugs, though this has decreased in recent years. Over the last couple of years, the Malaysian Health Ministry has increased its efforts to overhaul the system and attract more foreign investment.
CONCLUSION:The health situation of Malaysia is good rather than the India, by the both report.
THE CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATION INDIAIndia may be witnessing rising demand for exploitation of its natural resources. India may be seeing an increased pressure on its forest-based products. India may be satisfied with the current high gear economy-but the need to find solutions to its environmental degradation only furthers with such development. Wild life trade, pollution, deforestation, and the aspirations of more than millions have combined to put forth catacl