Seminar Report Cloud Computing

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Seminar Report on Cloud Computing


<p>Himanand Raj Bharat 2K9/DEEE/118 DELHI TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERIT! CHA"TER 1IntroductionAccording to the IEEE Computer Society Cloud Computing is:"A paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the Internet and achedtemporarily on clients that include desktops, Entertainment centres, table computers,notebooks, wall computers, handhelds, etc." CLOUDCO#"UTINGCLOUD COMPUTINGCloud computing is Internet ("cloud") based development and use of computer technology("computing").It isanemergingcomputingtechnologythat usestheInternet andcentralremoteservers to maintain dataandapplications. Cloudcomputing allos consumersandbusiness to use applications ithout installation andaccess their personal files at anycomputer ith Internet access. !his technology allos for much more efficient computing bycentrali"ing storage# memory# processing and bandidth. A definition for cloud computing can be given as an emerging computer paradigm here dataand services reside in massively scalable data centres in the cloud and can be accessed fromanyconnecteddevicesoverthe internet.!he beste$ampleofcloudcomputingis%oogleAppshereanyapplicationcanbeaccessedusingabroserandit canbedeployedonthousandsof computerthroughtheInternet.Cloud computing is the next naturalstep in the evolution of ondemand information technolog! services andproducts" To a large extent cloud computing #ill $e $ased on virtuali%edresources" The idea of cloud computing is $ased on a ver! fundamental principal ofreusa$ilit! ofITcapa$ilities"Computingcanbedescribedasanyactivityofusingand&amp;ordeveloping computer hardareandsoftare.It includes everything thatsits inthebottomlayer# i.e. everything fromracompute poer to storage capabilities. Cloudcomputing ties together all these entities and delivers them as a single integrated entity underits on sophisticated management.Cloud is a term used as a metaphor for the ide area netor's (li'e internet) or any suchlarge netor'ed environment. It came partly from the cloud(li'e symbol used to represent thecomple$ities of the netor's in the schematic diagrams. It represents all the comple$ities ofthe netor' hich may include everything from cables# routers# servers# data centres and allsuchother devices.)ithcloudcomputingecome bac'tothecentrali"edcomputinginfrastructure. It is something hich can easily be accessed via the internet and somethingover hich e have all the control.CHA"TER 2How does a Cloud work??A cloud user needs a client device such as a laptop or des'top computer or any computingresource ith a eb broser (or other approved access route) to access a cloud system via the)orld )ide )eb. !ypically the user ill log into the cloud at a service provider or privatecompany# such as their employer. Cloud computing or's on a client(server basis using ebbroser protocols. !he cloud provides server(based applications and all data services to theuser# ith output displayed on the client device.Dept" of &amp;&amp;&amp;' Delhi Technological Universit! (CLOUD COMPUTINGIftheuserishestocreateadocument usingaordprocessor# fore$ample# thecloudprovides a suitable application running on the server hich displays or' done by the user onthe client eb broser display. *emory allocated to the client system+s eb broser is usedto ma'e the application data appear on the client system display# but all computations andchangesare recordedbytheserver#and finalresults includingfiles created or alteredarepermanently stored on the cloud servers.Cloudservices or'onmultiple platforms# including,inu$# *acintosh# and)indoscomputers. Smart phones# pads and tablet devices ith Internet and )orld )ide )eb accessalso provide cloud services to telecommuting and mobile users. A service provider may poolthe processing poer of multiple remote computers in a cloud to achieve routine tas's suchas bac'ing up of large amounts of data# ord processing# or computationally intensive or'.!hese tas's might normally be difficult# time consuming# or e$pensive for an individual useror a small company to accomplish# especially ith limited computing resources and funds.)ith cloud computing# clients re-uire only a simple computer# such as netboo's# designedith cloud computing in mind# or even a Smartphone# ith a connection to the Internet# or acompany netor'# in order to ma'e re-uests to and receive data from the cloud# hence theterm "softare as a service" (SaaS). Computation and storage is divided among the remotecomputers inorder tohandlelargevolumes of both# thus theclient neednot purchasee$pensive hardare or softare to handle the tas'. !he outcome of the processing tas' isreturned to the client over the netor'# dependent on the speed of the Internet connection.Dept" of &amp;&amp;&amp;' Delhi Technological Universit! )CLOUD COMPUTINGFIG 2.1Dept" of &amp;&amp;&amp;' Delhi Technological Universit! *CLOUD COMPUTINGCHA"TER $Cloud ArchitectureCloud architecture the systems architecture of the softare systems involved in the deliveryofcloudcomputing# compriseshardareandsoftaredesignedbyacloudarchitecthotypicallyor's for acloudintegrator. It typicallyinvolves multiplecloudcomponentscommunicating ith each other over application programming interfaces# usually ebservices. !his closely$ philosophy ofhavingmultiple programsdoingone thingell and or'ing together over universal interfaces. Comple$ity is controlled and theresulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts. Cloud architecturee$tends to the client#here eb brosers and&amp;or softare applicationsaccesscloudapplications.Cloudstoragearchitectureislooselycoupled# heremetadataoperations are centrali"ed enabling the data nodes to scale into the hundreds# eachindependently delivering data to applications or users.FIG 3.1Dept" of &amp;&amp;&amp;' Delhi Technological Universit! +CLOUD COMPUTINGCHAPTER Cloud Co!"utin# ser$ices!he cloud computing services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure(as(a(Service (IaaS) /latform(as(a(Service (/aaS) Softare(as(a(Service (SaaS)Infrastructure(as(a(Serviceprovidesvirtual server instancesithuni-ueI/addressesandbloc's of storage on demand. Customers use the providers application program interface tostart# stop# accessandconfiguretheirvirtual serversandstorage. Intheenterprise# cloudcomputing allos a company to pay for only as much capacity as is needed# and bring moreonline as soon as re-uired./latform(as(a(service in the cloud is defined as a set of softare and product developmenttools hosted on the provider+s infrastructure. 0evelopers create applications on the provider+splatform over the Internet. In the softare(as(a(service cloud model# the vendor supplies the hardare infrastructure# thesoftare product and interacts ith the user through a front(end portal. Even though cloudcomputing is a pretty netechnology# there are many companies offering the abovementioned cloud computing services. 0ifferent companies li'e Ama"on# %oogle# 1ahoo# I2* and *icrosoft are all players in thecloudcomputingservices industry. 2ut Ama"onis thepioneer inthe cloudcomputingindustry ith services li'e EC3 (Elastic Compute Cloud) and S4 (Simple Storage Service)dominating the industry. *icrosoft has good 'noledge of the fundamentals of cloud scienceand is building massive data centres. I2*# the 'ing of business computing and traditional supercomputers# teams up ith %oogleto get a foothold in the clouds. %oogle is far and aay the leader in cloud computing ith thecompany itself built from the ground up on hardare.Dept" of &amp;&amp;&amp;' Delhi Technological Universit! ,CLOUD COMPUTINGFIG .1CHA"TER %Dept" of &amp;&amp;&amp;' Delhi Technological Universit! -CLOUD COMPUTINGI!"le!entin# Cloud Co!"utin#All of thearchitectural andorgani"ational considerations mentionedhereinaregenerallyapply to all implementations of a cloud infrastructure. As e focus on building the cloud# anumber of models have been developed for deploying a cloud infrastructure. %.1 Pri$ate CloudsIn a private cloud# the infrastructure for implementing the cloud is controlled completely bythe enterprise. !ypically# private clouds are implemented in the data center of the enterpriseand managed by internal resources. A private cloud maintains all corporate data in resources under the control of the legal andcontractual umbrella of the organi"ation.!his eliminates the regulatory# legal and securityconcerns associated ith information being processed on third party computing resources. !he private cloud can also be used by e$isting I! departments to dramatically reduce theircosts and as an opportunity to shift from a cost center to a value center in the eyes of thebusiness.%.2 Pu&amp;lic CloudsIn a public cloud# e$ternal organi"ations provide the infrastructure and management re-uiredto implement the cloud. /ublic clouds dramatically simplify implementation and are typicallybilled based on usage. !his transfers the cost from a capital e$penditure to an operationale$pense and can -uic'ly be scaled to meet the organi"ation5s needs.!emporaryapplicationsorapplications ithburstresource re-uirementstypically benefitfrom the public cloud5s ability to ratchet up resources hen needed and then scale them bac'hen they are no longer needed. In a private cloud# the company ould need to provision fortheorst caseacrossall theapplicationsthat sharetheinfrastructure. !hiscanresult inasted resources hen utili"ation is not at its pea'. /ublic clouds have the disadvantage of hosting your data in an offsite organi"ation outsidethe legal and regulatory umbrella of your organi"ation.In addition#as most public cloudsleverage a orldide netor' of data centers# it is difficult to document the physical locationof data at any particular moment. !hese issues result in potential regulatory compliance issues that include the use of publicclouds for certain organi"ations or business applications. 6ot all public cloud basedapplications can provide the necessary fle$ibility and functionality needed by business users.7or this reason# customers re-uire the ability to ta'e preferred functionality from one cloudapplication and combine it ith another# creating a cloud based component application. !hisDept" of &amp;&amp;&amp;' Delhi Technological Universit! .CLOUD COMPUTINGisstill anemergingareaofdevelopment ithsomeearlycompanies# suchasCast Iron#providing integration of a ide range of cloud(based applications. .ltimately#manycustomersmaydecidethat theprivatecloudoffersmorefle$ibilityanddevelop ne applications themselves. %.3 H'&amp;rid CloudsTo meet the $ene/ts of $oth approaches' ne#er execution models have$een developedto com$ine pu$lic andprivate clouds into a uni/edsolution" 0pplications #ith signi/cant legal' regulator! or service level concerns forinformation can $e directed to a private cloud" Other applications #ith lessstringent regulator! or service levelre1uirements can leverage a pu$liccloud infrastructure" Implementation of a h!$rid model re1uires additional coordination$et#een the private and pu$lic service management s!stem" Thist!picall! involvesafederatedpolic!management tool' seamlessh!$ridintegration' federated securit!' information asset management'coordinated provisioning control' and uni/ed monitoring s!stems"8ybrid clouds combine both public and private cloud models. !his is most often seen iththe use of storage clouds to support )eb 3.9 applications.CHA"TER &amp;Dept" of &amp;&amp;&amp;' Delhi Technological Universit! 2CLOUD COMPUTINGCharacteristics o( Cloud co!"utin#).1 *'na!ic co!"utin# in(rastructureCloud computing re-uires a dynamic computing infrastructure. !he foundation for thedynamic infrastructure is a standardi"ed# scalable# and secure physical infrastructure. !hereshould be levels of redundancy to ensure high levels of availability# but mostly it must beeasy to e$tend as usage groth demands it# ithout re-uiring architecture reor'. 6e$t# itmust be virtuali"ed.A dynamic computing infrastructure is critical to effectively supporting the elastic nature ofservice provisioning and de(provisioning as re-uested by users hile maintaining high levelsof reliability and security. !he consolidation provided by virtuali"ation# coupled ithprovisioning automation# creates a high level of utili"ation and reuse# ultimately yielding avery effective use of capital e-uipment.).2 IT ser$ice+centric a""roachCloudcomputingis I!(or business) service(centric. !his is insharpcontrast tomoretraditional system( or server( centric models. In most cases# users of the cloud generally antto run some business service or application for a specific# timely purpose: they don5t ant toget bogged don in the system and netor' administration of the environment. !hey ouldprefer to -uic' and easy access a dedicated instance of an application or service. 2yabstractingaaytheserver(centricvieoftheinfrastructure# systemuserscaneasilyaccess poerful pre(definedcomputing environments designedspecificallyaroundtheirservice.!he I! Service Centric approach enables user adoption and business agility ; the easier andfasterausercanperformanadministrativetas'# themoree$pedient thebusinessmoves#reducing costs or driving revenue.).3 ,el(+ser$ice &amp;ased usa#e !odelInteracting ith the cloud re-uires some level of user self(service. 2est of breed self(serviceprovidesuserstheabilitytoupload# build# deploy#schedule# manage# andreport ontheirbusiness services on demand. Self(service cloud offerings must provide easy(to(use# intuitiveuser interfaces that e-uip users to productively manage the service delivery lifecycle.Dept" of &amp;&amp;&amp;' Delhi Technological Universit! 34CLOUD COMPUTING). -ini!all' or sel(+!ana#ed "lat(or!7or an I! team or a service provider to efficiently provide a cloud for its constituents# theymust leverage a technology platform that is self(managed. 2est(of(breed clouds enable self(management via softare automation# leveraging the folloing capabilities:eviebac'upanddisaster(recoverysystems inlight of I!security. Apart fromanything else# I! security breaches can re-uire complete application recovery.2ecause of the comple$ity of securing cloud environments# many organi"ations use hybridcloud environments that include public as ell as private clouds.Cloud service providers each have their on ay of managing security. Sometimes# the cloudservice provider5s security plan ill conflict ith your company5s rules. 2efore youimplement yoursecurityplanyouneedtoensurethatitill complement yourprovider5splan.CHA"TER 8.eed (or cloud co!"utin#Dept" of &amp;&amp;&amp;' Delhi Technological Universit! 3(CLOUD COMPUTING)hat could e do ith educedcostsduetooperational efficiencies# andmorerapiddeployment ofnebusiness services.Barri(r) t* C+*,d C*m-,tin.I! cloud services are still largely in the early adoption phase.As such# it is no surprise thatthere5salonglist ofissuescloudservicessuppliersneedtoaddresstodrivemainstreamadoption.8ere5s ho our respondents rated nine of the challenges commonly ascribed to thecloud services model.FIG 1.1Dept" of &amp;&amp;&amp;' Delhi Technological Universit! 3+CLOUD COMPUTING1. Custo!er Pers"ecti$eE 0ata Security: *any customers don5t ish to trust their data to Fthe cloudG. 0ata must belocally retai...</p>