Session 3: Exodus ... Session 3: Exodus Videos: • Exodus Part I (The Bible Project) • Exodus Part

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  • Session 3: Exodus Videos:

    • Exodus Part I (The Bible Project)

    • Exodus Part II (The Bible Project)

    Recommended Readings from the ESV Study Bible: • Introduction to Exodus (pp. 139–144)

    • I AM WHO I AM (p. 149)

    • The Tabernacle and Court (pp. 190–191)

    Handout from The Bible Project:

    • Exodus Overview Poster

    Handouts from Dr. Parke:

    • Old Testament Law

    • Exodus — When?

    • Timeline: Exodus 12 - Deuteronomy 34

    Handouts from ESV Study Bible: • Three Stages of Moses’ Life

    • The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart

    • The Battle between Yahweh and the Rulers of Egypt

    • The Tabernacle Tent

    Session 3: Exodus - Page 1 of 21

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  • Old Testament Law

    The Hebrew noun torah, translated “law,” also means “instruction” and “teaching.”

    The Israelites did not despise the Law. On the contrary, it inspired them to sing: e.g.,

    Psalm 19:7-14 and Psalm 119, the longest “chapter” in the Bible.

    The Law revealed God’s nature. It defined God’s will.

    The twelfth-century Jewish philosopher Maimonides tabulated the laws in the Pentateuch (AKA

    Torah), Genesis - Deuteronomy.

    248 Admonitions [“dos”]

    365 Prohibitions [“don’ts”]

    613

    Collections of Law

    ì Covenant Code Exodus 20:22 - 23:33

    í Priestly Code Exodus 25-31; Exodus 34:29 - Leviticus 16:34; portions of Numbers

    î Holiness Code Leviticus 17-26

    ï Deuteronomic Code Deuteronomy 12-26

    Kinds of Law

    APODICTIC LAW: “Absolute Law”

    unconditional, categorical directives such as admonitions and prohibitions

    absolute orders about right and wrong--NO exceptions

    personal, direct address; brief

    “Thou shalt . . . ”

    “Thou shalt not . . . ”

    FOCUS: moral and religious matters

    Examples

    Ten Commandments

    Lex Talionis (“Law of Retaliation”)

    “Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for

    wound, bruise for bruise.” [Exodus 21:24-25]

    Session 3: Exodus - Page 7 of 21

  • CASUISTIC LAW: “Case Law”

    IF -----> THEN format

    The “if” clause describes the case concerned, the “then” clause describes the legal penalty for

    infractions.

    impersonal, third-person style; wordy

    FOCUS: civil or criminal matters

    Examples

    “IF men have a quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, and he does not

    die but remains in bed, IF he gets up and walks around outside on his staff, THEN he who

    struck him shall go unpunished; he shall only pay for his loss of time, and shall take care of

    him until he is completely healed.” [Exodus 21:18-19]

    “IF a fellow countryman of yours becomes so poor he has to sell part of his property,

    THEN his nearest kinsman is to come and buy back what his relative has sold.”

    [Leviticus 25:25]

    Descriptions and Principles

    ì Old Testament Law is selective, NOT exhaustive.

    “The OT’s legal sections do not constitute a comprehensive legal code. Instead, they present

    a select sample of illustrative cases or topics whose legal principles were to serve as a guide

    to Israel. Their purpose was to teach the Israelite fundamental values, not to provide them

    with a handy legal reference tool. In short, their aim was instructional rather than judicial.”

    ^ Our societal laws are voluminous in order to anticipate every contingency and to close

    loopholes.

    í The context for Old Testament Law is covenant.

    “OT law represents the personal demands of Israel’s sovereign Lord, not an abstract system

    of morality or a technical legal code. In light of this, readers must interpret law relationally--

    as the guidelines that govern Israel’s ongoing life with her gracious God.”

    ^ We obey our societal laws in order to avoid punishment, NOT to please any person.

    How does Old Testament Law Relate to Christians?

    ì Some Old Testament laws retain their literal validity for Christians.

    Examples

    Exodus 20:1-17

    Leviticus 19:18

    Deuteronomy 6:5

    Session 3: Exodus - Page 8 of 21

  • í Sometimes, a New Testament teaching makes an Old Testament law more strict.

    Examples

    Murder and Hatred Matthew 5:21-26

    Adultery and Lust Matthew 5:27-30

    Divorce and Remarriage Matthew 5:31-32

    î Some Old Testament laws, in light of New Testament teachings, no longer have a literal

    validity.

    Examples

    Dietary Regulations Mark 7:19; Acts 10:9-16

    Circumcision Galatians 5:2-6

    Sacrificial System Hebrews 10:1-10

    ï Old Testament laws that no longer have a literal validity still teach important timeless truths.

    “To properly interpret law the student must discover the timeless truth beneath its cultural

    husk.”

    “All of the OT applies to Christians, but none of it applies apart from its fulfillment in

    Christ.”

    “All of the Old Testament law is still the Word of God for us even though it is not still the

    command of God to us. The Bible contains all sorts of commands that God wants us to know

    about, which are not directed toward us personally.”

    “Only that which is explicitly renewed from the Old Testament law can be considered part of

    the New Testament ‘law of Christ.”

    “mistake to conclude . . . that the Law is no longer a valuable part of the Bible”

    Examples: Odd Laws

    Exodus 23:19 and 34:26

    Numbers 5:11-31

    Deuteronomy 22:9-12

    John H. Sailhamer, The Pentateuch as Narrative, 481-516.

    William W. Klein, Craig L. Blomberg, and Robert L. Hubbard, Jr., Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, 275-82.

    Gordon D. Fee and Douglas Stuart, How to read the Bible for All Its Worth, 153-54.

    Session 3: Exodus - Page 9 of 21

  • Session 3: Exodus - Page 10 of 21

  • HANDOUT: Exodus--When?

    Early Date Late Date

    REASONS

    1 Kings 6:1 In the fourth

    year of his

    reign, King

    Solomon began

    the construction

    of the temple in

    Jerusalem, 480

    years after the

    EXODUS.

    966 B.C.

    + 480 years

    1446 B.C.

    Jericho destroyed no

    later than 1325

    B.C., not

    resettled until

    the 7th century

    B.C.

    1876 B.C.

    1446 B.C.

    1400 B.C.

    |

    |

    |

    Period of the

    Judges

    |

    |

    |

    1050 B.C.

    Jacob and his

    family enter

    Egypt.

    |

    |

    430-year

    stay

    Exodus

    12:40-41

    |

    |

    The Israelites

    leave Egypt.

    EXODUS

    The Israelites

    enter the

    Promised

    Land after

    wandering

    40 years in

    the

    wilderness.

    Saul

    becomes

    Israel’s first

    king.

    1720 B.C.

    1290 B.C.

    1250 B.C.

    |

    |

    |

    Period of the

    Judges

    |

    |

    |

    1050 B.C.

    REASONS

    stele of

    Merneptah

    1220 B.C.

    Exodus 1:11 construction of

    Raamses and

    Pithom, cities

    attributed to

    Rameses II

    Numbers

    20:14-21 no Edomite

    settlement

    before 1300

    B.C.

    Ai reoccupied

    1220 B.C.

    Bethel destroyed 1250

    B.C.

    Hazor destroyed 13th

    century B.C.

    Lachish destroyed 1234

    B.C.

    Megiddo

    Aphek destroyed 1135

    B.C.

    Session 3: Exodus - Page 11 of 21

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  • D is

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