Share Capital Presentation

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SHARESDEFINITIONS The Companies Act defines a share as Share in the Share Capital of the company, and includes stock except where a distinction between stock and share is expressed. According to J.Farwell a share is the interest of a shareholder in a company measured by the sum of money, for the purpose of liability in the first place and of interest in the second.

NATURE OF A SHARE Shares in India, are both goods as well as chose in action. It is bundle of rights, each one of which is a legal chose in action. The legal title to the share is vested in the person entitled to it, either by the company or by transfer from a former holder.

TYPES OF SHARES Before passing Companies Act, 1956, shares used to be in three types Ordinary Shares Preference Shares Deferred Shares After Companies Act , companies issued only two types of shares Preference Shares Equity Shares

ALLOTMENT OF SHARES Offers are made on application forms supplied by the company. When an application is accepted, it is an allotment. Allotment is generally neither more nor less than the acceptance by the company of the offer to take shares.

It is an appropriation out by the directors of shares to a particular person.

A valid allotment has to comply with the requirements of the Act and the principles of the law of contract relating to acceptance of offers.

STATUTORY RESTRICTIONS ON ALLOTMENT Minimum subscription and application money [s. 69]: It means the amount which is, in the estimate of thedirectors, enough to meet the needs like purchase price of any property partly or wholly, preliminary expenses, and working capital.

Statement of lieu of prospectus [s.70]: Whereprospectus has not been issued, no allotment shall be made unless at least three days before a statement in lieu of prospectus has been filled with the register.

Opening of subscription list [s.72]:Shares can notbe allotted at once after the issue of the prospectus . No allotment shall be done until the beginning of the 5th day from the date of the issue of the prospectus.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES ALLOTMENT BY PROPER AUTHORITY : An allotment must be made by a resolution of the board of directors Allotment is a duty primarily falling upon directors and this can be delegated except in accordance with the provisions of the articles. WITHIN RESONABLE TIME : Allotment must be done within a reasonable time, otherwise the application lapses. On the expiry of reasonable time section 6 of the Contract Act applies and the application must be deemed to have been revoked.

CERTIFICATE OF SHARES An allottee of shares is entitled to have from the company a document called share certificate, clarifying that he is the holder of the specified number of shares or debentures or debenturestock is obliged to deliver to the allottee a certificate of shares within three months of allotment.


Transfer of shares When joint stock companies were established, the great object was that the shares should be capable of being transferred. Accordingly, by section 82 of the companies Act, it is provided that the shares of a member in a company shall be moveable property capable of being transferred in the manner provided by the articles of the company. RESTRICTIONS ON THE TRANSFER OF SHARES Is open to a company to restrict the right of its members to transfer their shares. The article of a private company as against those of a public company contain more rigorous restrictions on its members to transfer their shares.

BROKERAGE The Company Act, 1956, permits brokerage to be paid as has been lawful for a company to pay. It has been recognized in Metropolitan Coal Consumers Assn vs. Scringeour that reasonable brokerage should always be allowed. Brokerage is different from underwriting commission. A broker does not undertake to subscribe for shares to the extent of public default. Brokers are professional men, such as stockbrokers, bankers and the like, who exhibit prospectus and send them to their customers, and by whose mediation the customers are induced to subscribe.

ISSUE OF SHARES AT PREMIUM If the market exists, a company may issue its shares a price higher than their nominal value. There is no restriction on the sale of share at a premium. SEBI guidelines have to be observed as they indicate when an issue has to be at par and when premium is chargeable. Premium may be received in cash or kind. An amount received extra than the nominal value due to the premium should be carried to the share premium account.

SHARE CAPITAL Share capital means the capital raised by a company by the issue of shares.

kinds OF SHARE CAPITAL The capital of the company may be two types: company limited by shares, that part of the capital of the company which carries a preferential right as to payment of dividend during the lifetime of the company and repayment of capital on winding up of the company is known as Preference Share Capital.

Preference Share Capital : In case of a

which is not preference share capital is known as equity share capital. Capital which does not carry any preferential rights.

Equity Share Capital : All the share capital


Authorised Capital Issued Capital Subscribed Capital Paid up Capital Reserved capital

PREFERENCE SHARE CAPITAL Preference share capital means that part of the share capital of a company which fulfils both the following requirements: During the continuance of the company it must be assured of a preferential dividend. On the winding up of the company it must carry a preferential right to be paid up.

TYPES OF PREFERENCE SHARESPreference shares may be either Cumulative Non-Cumulative But in the absence of any clear provision to the contrary, preference shares are presumed to be cumulative.

ORDINARY SHAREHOLDER COMPARED WITH PREFERENCE SHAREHOLDERPREFERENCE SHARES These are more like debentures than like shares. They are entitle to a fixed rate of interest. The company may choose them to pay them back. The right to vote restricted to resolutions which directly affect the rights attached to his preference shares, except when dividend has remained unpaid. Offers profitable and safe source of investment.

ORDINARY SHARES Ordinary shareholders cannot be paid back except under a scheme involving reduction of capital. Ordinary shareholder is entitled to vote on all matters affecting the company. Rate of income involved is more. and risk

VOTING RIGHTS EQUITY SHAREHOLDERS RIGHTS[sec. 87 (1)] : An equity shareholder of a company limited by shares has a right to vote on every resolution placed before it. His voting right on a poll is in proportion to his share of the paid-up equity capital of the company. Preference share capital[sec. 87 (2)] : A preference shareholder has the right to vote on those resolutions which directly affect his rights. Any resolution for winding up the company or for the repayment or reduction of its share capital is deemed to directly affect the rights of the preference share holder.

FURTHER ISSUE OF CAPITALFurther issue of capital of a company may take place By allotment of new shares [sec. 81(1) to (3)]: A public company limited by shares may, at any time, increase its subscribed shares capital within the limit of authorized capital by issuing new shares. It is for the directors to decide whether an increase in the subscribed capital of the company is necessary or not. by conversion of debentures or loans into shares [sec. 81(4) to(7)] : where a company has taken loan from the central government by issuing any debentures or otherwise, the government may, in the public interest , convert such debentures or loans into shares in the company.

Reserve share capital or reserve liability This section provides that by passing a special resolution, a company may determine that any portion of its share capital which has not already been called up shall not be capable of being called up except in the event of company's winding up. Such capital is called reserve share capital.

MEETINGS INTRODUCTION A company is an association of several persons. Decisions are made according to the view of the majority. Various matters have to be discussed and decided upon. These discussions take place at the various meetings which take place between members and between the directors. Needless to say, the importance of meetings cannot be underemphasized in case of companies. The Companies Act, 1956 contains several provisions regarding meetings. These provisions have to be understood and followed. A Meeting may be generally defined as gathering or assembling or getting together of no,of persons for transacting any lawful business. For a meeting, there must be at least 2 persons attending the meeting. One member cannot constitute a company meeting even if he holds proxies for other members. It is to be noted that every gathering or assembly doesn t constitute a meeting. Company meetings must be convened and held in perfect compliance with the various provisions of the companies act, 1956 and the rules framed there under.

Kinds of Company Meetings I . Meetings of Members : Statutory Meeting: Annual General MeetingII . Meetings of the Board of Directors Meeting of the Board of Directors Meeting of a Committee of the Board III . Other Meetings Meeting of debenture holders Meeting of creditors