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  • IAEA-TECDOC-1634

    Signal Processing and Electronicsfor Nuclear Spectrometry

    Proceedings of a Technical Meeting Vienna, 2023 November 2007

  • Signal Processing and Electronics for Nuclear Spectrometry

  • The following States are Members of the International Atomic Energy Agency:

    AFGHANISTANALBANIAALGERIAANGOLAARGENTINAARMENIAAUSTRALIAAUSTRIAAZERBAIJANBAHRAINBANGLADESHBELARUSBELGIUMBELIZEBENINBOLIVIABOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINABOTSWANABRAZILBULGARIABURKINA FASOBURUNDICAMEROONCANADACENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLICCHADCHILECHINACOLOMBIACONGOCOSTA RICACTE DIVOIRECROATIACUBACYPRUSCZECH REPUBLICDEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGODENMARKDOMINICAN REPUBLICECUADOREGYPTEL SALVADORERITREAESTONIAETHIOPIAFINLANDFRANCEGABONGEORGIAGERMANY

    GHANAGREECEGUATEMALAHAITIHOLY SEEHONDURASHUNGARYICELANDINDIAINDONESIAIRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAQIRELANDISRAELITALYJAMAICAJAPANJORDANKAZAKHSTANKENYAKOREA, REPUBLIC OFKUWAITKYRGYZSTANLATVIALEBANONLESOTHOLIBERIALIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYALIECHTENSTEINLITHUANIALUXEMBOURGMADAGASCARMALAWIMALAYSIAMALIMALTAMARSHALL ISLANDSMAURITANIAMAURITIUSMEXICOMONACOMONGOLIAMONTENEGROMOROCCOMOZAMBIQUEMYANMARNAMIBIANEPALNETHERLANDSNEW ZEALANDNICARAGUANIGER

    NIGERIANORWAYOMANPAKISTANPALAUPANAMAPARAGUAYPERUPHILIPPINESPOLANDPORTUGALQATARREPUBLIC OF MOLDOVAROMANIARUSSIAN FEDERATIONSAUDI ARABIASENEGALSERBIASEYCHELLESSIERRA LEONESINGAPORESLOVAKIASLOVENIASOUTH AFRICASPAINSRI LANKASUDANSWEDENSWITZERLANDSYRIAN ARAB REPUBLICTAJIKISTANTHAILANDTHE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIATUNISIATURKEYUGANDAUKRAINEUNITED ARAB EMIRATESUNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELANDUNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIAUNITED STATES OF AMERICAURUGUAYUZBEKISTANVENEZUELAVIETNAMYEMENZAMBIAZIMBABWE

    The Agencys Statute was approved on 23 October 1956 by the Conference on the Statute of the IAEAheld at United Nations Headquarters, New York; it entered into force on 29 July 1957. The Headquarters of theAgency are situated in Vienna. Its principal objective is to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomicenergy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.

  • IAEA-TECDOC-1634

    Signal Processing and Electronics for Nuclear Spectrometry

    PROCEEDINGS OF A TECHNICAL MEETING VIENNA, 2023 NOVEMBER 2007

    INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY VIENNA, 2009

  • COPYRIGHT NOTICE

    All IAEA scientific and technical publications are protected by the terms of the Universal Copyright Convention as adopted in 1952 (Berne) and as revised in 1972 (Paris). The copyright has since been extended by the World Intellectual Property Organization (Geneva) to include electronic and virtual intellectual property. Permission to use whole or parts of texts contained in IAEA publications in printed or electronic form must be obtained and is usually subject to royalty agreements. Proposals for non-commercial reproductions and translations are welcomed and considered on a case-by-case basis. Enquiries should be addressed to the IAEA Publishing Section at: Sales and Promotion, Publishing Section International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna International Centre PO Box 100 1400 Vienna, Austria fax: +43 1 2600 29302 tel.: +43 1 2600 22417 email: [email protected] http://www.iaea.org/books

    For further information on this publication, please contact:

    Physics Section International Atomic Energy Agency

    Vienna International Centre PO Box 100

    1400 Vienna, Austria email: [email protected]

    SIGNAL PROCESSING AND ELECTRONICS FOR NUCLEAR SPECTROMETRY

    IAEA, VIENNA, 2009 IAEA-TECDOC-1634

    ISBN 978-92-0-112809-6 ISSN 1011-4289

    IAEA, 2009 Printed by the IAEA in Austria

    December 2009

    mailto:[email protected]

  • FOREWORD

    The IAEA has responded to Member States needs by implementing programmatic activities that provide interested Member States, particularly those in developing countries, with support to increase, and in some cases establish national and regional capabilities for the proper operation, calibration, maintenance and utilization of instruments in nuclear spectrometry applications. Technological advances in instrumentation, as well as the consequent high rate of obsolescence, make it important for nuclear instrumentation laboratories in Member States to keep their knowledge and skills up to date. This publication reviews the current status, developments and trends in electronics and digital methods for nuclear spectrometry, providing useful information for interested Member States to keep pace with new and evolving technologies.

    All nuclear spectrometry systems contain electronic circuits and devices, commonly referred to as front-end electronics, which accept and process the electrical signals produced by radiation detectors. This front-end electronics are composed of a chain of signal processing subsystems that filter, amplify, shape, and digitise these electrical signals to finally produce digitally encoded information about the type and nature of the radiation that stimulated the radiation detector. The design objective of front-end electronics is to obtain maximum information about the radiation and with the highest possible accuracy.

    Historically, the front-end electronics has consisted of all analog components. The performance delivered has increased continually over time through the development and implementation of new and improved analog electronics and electronic designs. The development of digital electronics, programmable logic, and digital signal processing techniques has now enabled most of the analog front-end electronics to be replaced by digital electronics, opening up new opportunities and delivering new benefits not previously achievable. Digital electronics and digital signal processing methods are enabling advances in numerous spectrometry applications such as lightweight, portable and hand held radiation instruments, and high-resolution digital medical imaging systems.

    The objective of this technical meeting was to review the current status, developments and trends in nuclear electronics and signal processing, and their application with various radiation detectors. The meeting discussed the problems faced and the solutions employed, to improve the performances of data acquisition systems and high-tech equipment used for nuclear spectrometry. Presentations made at the meeting elaborated operational experiences with modern signal processing and electronics, and highlighted the latest developments in this field. This publication summarizes the findings and conclusions arising from this technical meeting.

    The IAEA wishes to express its appreciation to all those who contributed to the production of this publication, and especially to M. Bogovac, who revised and finalized the manuscript. The IAEA officer responsible for this publication was N. Dytlewski of the Division of Physical and Chemical Science.

  • EDITORIAL NOTE

    The papers in these proceedings are reproduced as submitted by the authors and have not undergone rigorous editorial review by the IAEA.

    The views expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the IAEA, the governments of the nominating Member States or the nominating organizations.

    The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgement by the publisher, the IAEA, as to the legal status of such countries or territories, of their authorities and institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries.

    The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the IAEA.

    The authors are responsible for having obtained the necessary permission for the IAEA to reproduce, translate or use material from sources already protected by copyrights.

  • CONTENTS

    Summary .................................................................................................................................... 1 CONTRIBUTED PAPERS A digital signal processing system for neutron-gamma discrimination in neutron time of flight measurements ........................................................................................... 11 A.R. Behere, P.K. Mukhopadhyaya Implementation of digital signal processor for nuclear spectrometry using state of the art tools ............................................................................................... 17 M. Bogavac, D. Wegrzynek, A. Markowicz Positron annihilation spectroscopy: Digital vs. Analog signal processing .............................. 29 D. Bosnar Digital signal processing techniques for image reconstruction with X ray position sensitive detectors ........................................................................... 39 J.M. Cardoso, S.R. Pereira, J.M.F. Santos, L.P. Fernandes, J.B. Simes Features of position sensitive neutron detectors ...................................................................... 49 F. Fzi, G. Trk Possibilities of laboratory instrument upgrading by use of digital signal processors or field programmable gate arrays .................................................................................. 63 M. Smailou, Z. Mindaoudou Souley Problems faced in operating and maintaining nuclear spectroscopy systems in the United Republic of Tanzania .................................................................................... 67 Y.Y. Sungita, S.L.C. Mdoe, R.A. Kawala, A. Muhulo Problems in supporting high-tech digital equipment ............................................................... 73 F. Bartsch A high speed time-stamping and histogramming data acquisition system for position encoded data.............