Slavery and anti-slavery: a history and analysis Slavery 200 years on.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slavery and anti-slavery: a history and analysis Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> And we have been informed that thou hast forbidden the trading in slaves, both men and women. This, verily, is what God hath enjoined in this wondrous Revelation. God hath, truly, destined a reward for thee, because of this. Bahaullah, to Queen Victoria Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> To what was He referring? The unilateral abolition of the slave trade (1807) and slavery (1834) by Britain, and its imposition of abolition on other states Many Victorians also seem to have seen HMG as the agent of the divine in opposing slavery. Great Britain is the main instrument in the Hands of Providence for the accomplishment of this purposeIt is vain for these Arabs to resist the consummation of that which is written in the Book of Fate Foreign Secretary Palmerston to the British Consul at Zanzibar, 1846 Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> What are the elements of chattel slavery? People as property No political or legal rights No freedom of movement No pay No labour rights, e.g. hours, holidays No family rights, e.g. marriage Children are born enslaved No sexual autonomy Savage punishments available, even death Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Chattel slavery in history Until 1800, slavery is everywhere Greeks, Romans (galleys), Aztecs, Incas, Arabs Penalty for defeat in warfare Tributes from a subsidiary tribe A fruit of piracy, e.g. Sultan of Morocco Manumission Source of loyal soldiers e.g. Janissaries Voluntary surrender to a Lord, feudal Europe Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Why was it accepted? Few people were really free Serfdom Fealty Apprenticeship Maritime law, press gangs Forced marriage Equality before the law was non-existent in most countries No public opinion Slavery an incentive to spare captives Racism and religious prejudice Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> The role of religion and philosophy A man who is able to belong to another person is by nature a slave Aristotle, Politics, Ch 5 Slaves, obey your earthly masters in everything, as you obey Christ, Epistle to the Ephesians 6:5-8 He who hath killed a believer by mistake must set free a believing slave, Qur'an 4:92 Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> The Atlantic slave trade Slavery had long existed in West Africa From 1518 onwards 5+ million people taken from West Africa to North and South America and the Caribbean, 3 million on British ships Britain, France, Denmark, Spain, Portugal, Sweden African slave traders sold slaves to Europeans The triangular trade trade goods, people, sugar, cotton, tobacco, a 3-year voyage Death rate among slaves at sea 15% Death rate among British sailors at sea 20% (3 x longer voyage) Cruelty and cheating went with the trade Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> A terrifying experience Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Slavery in Brazil, 1700 Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Previous action on slavery 1435 Pope Eugene IV ordered all slaves in the Canaries freed 1761 Slavery abolished in mainland Portugal 1794 Jacobins abolished slavery in French Colonies 1802 Napoleon I reversed this measure 1803 Slave trading abolished in Denmark Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> The English courts c1570 An English Court found that a slave became free on arriving in England 1765 The Strong Case punishes a master for beating a servant/slave 1772 The Somerset Case establishes that slavery is illegal in Britain 1787 Foundation of the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> What happened in 1807? Eif of 1806 law outlawing trading in slaves Britain imposed a unilateral ban on the trade in slaves, seizing ships engaged in it All British treaties must involve abolition Many rescued slaves were press-ganged into the RN, others delivered to Sierra Leone Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> What did not happen in 1807? Slavery was not abolished in British colonies The slave trade within non-British territories was not abolished Slavery within West Africa grew rather than diminished Slave smuggling continued, being now more profitable Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> British FP and abolition 1808 Slave imports into USA banned (but the South) 1811 Madrid liberated and Spain abolishes slavery 1813 Sweden changes sides and abolishes slavery 1814 Netherlands liberated and abolishes slave trade 1817 Slave trading abolished by France (effective 1826) 1819 Portugal abolishes slave trading north of the Equator Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> What underlay Br. abolition? The ideas of the Enlightenment, the Philsophes and the American and French revolutions gradually filtered down into peoples consciousness. British tactical freeing of slaves in the American Revolution Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade, 1787 Publicity by ex-slaves and ex-slavers The successful slave rebellion in Haiti, 1791-1804 British dominance of the seas after Camperdown, Cape St Vincent, The Nile, Copenhagen and Trafalgar made enforcement possible Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Nelson: A pro slaver who unwittingly made the abolitionist blockade possible Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> What was special about the Society for Effecting the Abolition? The worlds first ever-principled NGO Tactical, focussed on the slave trade rather than slavery Where possible used the courts Developed tactics we know today sugar boycott, logos, pamphlets, public meetings, empirical research, Parliamentary Enquiry Petition by one third of the people of Manchester Cut across class lines, and even included women! Appealed to workers and victims of Press Gangs Appealed to religion, united Quakers, evangelical Anglicans and radicals High Tory Wilberforce as Parliamentary spokesman Literature, art Austen, Coleridge, Wedgwood, etc. Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Who were the key individuals? Granville Sharp Thomas Clarkson Olaudah Equiano Ben Franklin John Newton William Wilberforce Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Granville Sharp: Demolished the legal underpinnings of slavery in Britain Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Thomas Clarkson: Information gatherer and organiser Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Olaudah Equiano: Told the public how slavery feels Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Ben Franklin: The transatlantic hero who said that if all were created equal Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> John Newton: A saved wretch Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> William Wilberforce: Abolitions man about the House Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Who were their opponents? Owners of West Indian estates Sugar, tobacco, rum merchants Shipowners (reflagging as US ships after 1807) Bristol City Council and MPs Liverpool City Council and MPs, Tarleton (Alabama Affair, as late as 1865) Most royal Dukes Many sailors (but not all) Cotton factory owners Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> The gradual process of abolition 1820 Slave trading abolished by Spain (again) 1820s British permanent treaties with Oman and Gulf states (Trucial States), slave trade abolished 1834 Slavery abolished in British Colonies (but slaves apprenticed until 1838) 1839 Society for Effecting etc becomes British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society 1842 Slaves freed in Uruguay 1843 Slaves freed in Argentina 1843 Slavery abolished in Swedish Colonies 1848 Slavery abolished in Fr. and Danish Colonies 1851 Slave trading abolished by Brazil (Hmm!) Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> More good news 1854 Slavery abolished in Peru 1858 Slavery abolished in Portuguese Colonies (but slaves apprenticed for 20 years) 1861 Slavery abolished in Dutch Colonies in Caribbean 1862 Serfdom abolished in Russia (but 55 years of payments) 1863 Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation 1865 Slavery abolished in the United States 1870 Slavery abolished in Cuba 1888 Slavery abolished in Brazil (but were not there yet!) Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Withdraw your hands from tyranny, for I have pledged Myself not to forgive any man's injustice Bahaullah, The Hidden Words Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> There are more slaves now than there were in 1807! Slavery is a fuzzy concept, extending beyond chattel slavery Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> How many slaves now? Legal chattel slavery exists in Niger (3 m) and Mauritania Domestic slavery exists in most countries, Fillipino maids with no freedom (in Philippines and in Middle East) Kidnapped children in cocoa and agriculture (W. Africa) Debt bondage in bricks, agriculture and carpets in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal (15-20m) Forced labour in mining and charcoal in Brazil (1m) Enslaved prostitutes everywhere (0.5m in Europe) Child soldiers Congo, Uganda, (was Liberia, S. Leone) Gangmasters in many states, including USA and Europe Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> What are the elements of modern slavery? People treated as property, law irrelevant Political or legal rights exist, but ignored People tricked into dependency, endless debts Often forced to move outside home area Isolation, e.g. Morecambe Bay tragedy No pay, or fake pay and lots of charges No labour rights, e.g. hours, holidays No family rights, e.g. marriage No sexual autonomy, rape, forced prostitution, etc. Psychological or drug oppression Savage punishments, including death Slaves disposed of or dumped when sub-optimal Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Cheap, convenient and low maintenance Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Cheap, convenient and low maintenance Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Youre not up to the job, lad Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> How does it happen? Penalties lower than drug dealing, profits can be higher! Dependence fostered good cop, bad cop Move people across borders; the crook holds passports, you cant speak to locals Trickery (work as a nurse or teacher?), then extreme violence Demand for cheap goods Poor families sell children for goods or send them to a better life The police as organised crime (e.g. Thailand) The social elite as collective oppressors Client immorality and callousness Corruption undermines government schemes for emancipation from debt bondage (e.g. India) Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> To act like the beasts of the field is unworthy of man Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Sourcing the merchandise Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> A Bahai perspective on modern slavery Little or no specific reference in publicly available BIC documents International mobility without international controls or information Love of wealth without love of humanity Baseness of human motives, e.g. sexual slavery requires a depraved clientele A lack of moral fibre in the general public Sometimes associated with drugs and illiteracy Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> The Turning Point Extending collective security to new problems of the global commons (p11) Justice the indispensable compass in collective decision making (p12) Releasing the power of the individual (p13) Protecting human rights (p16) Advancing the status of women (pp 18-20) The all-important UDHR (p16) Monitoring and exclusion of rogue states (p18) Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> The violation of human rights in one state must be considered the concern of all, and enforcement mechanisms must provide for a unified response on the part of the entire international community Turning Point, p16 Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> A universal duty League of Nations 1926 Convention on the Abolition of Slavery Every member and every human has an absolute duty to prevent slavery UDHR Article 3. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. UDHR Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. UNDHR Article 23. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> The world fights back 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions Similar to Slavery Added sale of a person into marriage, debt bondage, serfdom, child labour, using and procuring slave labour 2000 UN Trafficking Protocol Optional protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography 2004 Brazil abolishes slavery (again!). Slaveholders assets may be seized Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Progress on trafficking Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, eif Feb 2008 States must provide protection and assistance to trafficked people, including compensation In UK, 41 cases led to 95 convictions, yet not one Compensation Order against the oppressor Some compensation has been paid by CICB Compensation would make trafficking less profitable Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> The EU gets its act together on trafficking Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Without human and state action, new international laws can do nothing Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Anti-slavery International 170 years old yesterday! Associated organisations in only 20-30 countries Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Recent ASI actions Established 5 schools in Niger Supports Coalition of Immokalee Workers in persuading McDonalds, Burger King and Subway to investigate their suppliers Persuaded UNO to appoint a Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Slavery Liberated 1,658 bonded labourers in South Asia through legal action Sponsored Mauritanian anti-slavery law Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> What can individuals do? Teach the Faith Teach people about consultation, about human rights and duties Educate people about slavery Ask about what you buy chocolate, jade, diamonds, carpets from South Asia (Rugmark) Dont accept waffle about culture: All things made new Dont buy on price alone: Read the CSR sections in company reports, respect good employers &amp; importers, trade unions, co-ops, minimum wages, Fair Trade goods and produce Be an upholder and defender of the victim of oppression Be nosy, and tell the police where you think slavery may exist Take an interest in Anti-Slavery International Slavery 200 years on </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> What...</li></ul>


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