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Socioemotional Development in Infants and Toddlers Chapter 6

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Text of Socioemotional Development in Infants and Toddlers Chapter 6

  • Slide 1
  • Socioemotional Development in Infants and Toddlers Chapter 6
  • Slide 2
  • Attachment emotional tie to a specific person or persons exists across time and space infants tend to form attachments with primary caregivers
  • Slide 3
  • Attachment Bowlbys early work Early infancyorientation without discrimination.(2-4 mos) Orients to any attending adult Little discrimination among caregiving adults Middle infancyorientation with discrimination (6-8 mos) Gazing preference for primary caregivers Responds differentially to primary caregivers
  • Slide 4
  • Bowlbys Early Work on Attachment Late infancy early toddlerhoodsafe-base attachment (6-12 mos) Actively seek to be near caregivers Seek proximal contact Become distressed when caregiver leaves (bond across time and space) Toddlerhoodgoal corrected partnerships Recognize motives of caregivers Toddler adjusts behaviors to needs and motives of caregivers
  • Slide 5
  • Ainsworths work Strange situation (page 193, Table 6.1) Stranger anxietysignals attachment Separation anxietysignals attachment Attachment Status Secure Attachment Mother return: infant seeks contact; cling tightly; allows mother to comfort and soothe Majority of infants show secure attachment
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  • Ainsworths work Attachment Status Insecure Avoidant Attachment No preference for mother (avoids or shows equal preference for mother and stranger) Mother leaves infants undisturbed; Continue playing with stranger
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  • Ainsworths work Attachment Status Insecure Resistant\ Ambivalent Attachment Exaggerated stranger and separation anxiety Exaggerated need to maintain proximal contact with mother Some resistant to mothers attempts to soothe Some passive with mothers attempts to console Some variable in response (cycles of calm and anger) Variable in status
  • Slide 8
  • Ainsworths work Attachment Status Parental quality and attachment (sensitive responsiveness) Secure Attachment Timely response Appropriate response Insecure disorganized or disoriented Attachments abusive parents or parents who suffered abuse themselves
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  • Ainsworths work Insecure Attachments indifferent parentingresponse only when necessary or when the parent is impacted indulgent parentingover stimulating; intrusive; unresponsive parentingneglectful Mothers of insecurely attached infants tense irritable unresponsive; little interest mechanical handling scheduled vs. demand feeding
  • Slide 10
  • Infant Characteristics, Caregiver Characteristics and Attachments Easy Infants--associated with greater frequency of secure attachments Special needsassociated with insecure attachments Fussy or difficult infants associated with higher levels of irritability-- tend to develop insecure attachments with mothers who have low levels of social support Model tends to be bidirectional with infant characteristics interacting with caregiver characteristics to yield the attachment status
  • Slide 11
  • Infant Characteristics, Caregiver Characteristics and Attachments Fathers role in attachment: fathers roles tend to reflect mothers roles in relationships with attachment statuses Child care and caregiver attachment: with quality child care, no difference in attachment given caregiver is responsive in sensitive and timely ways when with infant
  • Slide 12
  • Infant Characteristics, Caregiver Characteristics and Attachments NICHDChild Care Report (2006): Quality of out of home child care related to: Family income, education, parenting style Higher quality out of home child care related to higher levels of cognitive and social development Effect sizes range from moderate to small
  • Slide 13
  • Attachment and Developmental Outcomes Long-term outcomes: securely attached infants tend to have some early advantage over other attachment statuses; higher quality care later in childhood and adolescence can overcome early attachment challenges;
  • Slide 14
  • Social Risk and Childrens Health Outcomes Larson, et al. (2008) High School education or less Family income

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