Soil Handbook by engr. kiron

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geotechnical, civil engineering.

Text of Soil Handbook by engr. kiron

ENGR. MD SHAHIDUZZAMAN (KIRON) Soil Test cqvRbxqZv wK? c_gZ: GKwU Structure Gi Foundation depth Ges Foundation wK Type ne Zv Rvbvi Rb cqvRb| 2qZ D Foundation Gi Load bearing capacity Kgb ne Zv Rvbvi Rb | 3qZ D Foundation Earthquake Gi Rb KZUzKz vulnerable. 4_ cvnvox GjvKv ev hLvb Foundation Gi wbPi soil slide Kivi mebv _vK mLvb wK aibi protection wbZ ne A` wK retaining wall wKsev sheet pile, bulk heads wKsev brace cut Gi cqvRbxqZv AvQ wKbv Zv LwZq `Lvi Rb| 5gZ GKwU Structure Gi m~b load RwbZ Kvib wK cwigvb Settlement nZ cvi Zv Rvbvi Rb Ges Estimate Kivi Rb | 6Z Ground water level Kv_vq AvQ Zv Rvbvi Rb| 7gZ Foundation Gi bxPi soil wK cohesive ev Non cohesive Zv Rvbvi Rb | 8gZ soil G Liquefaction Gi mvebv AvQ wKbv Zv LwZq `Lvi Rb| Field Test: Field Test G hvIqvi c~e GKRb BwwbqviK RvbZ ne h, Structure wU KZ Storiyed nIqvi mvebv AvQ| Kbbv Field Test ENGR. MD SHAHIDUZZAMAN (KIRON) Gi evwis Depth KZUzKz ne Zv Gi Dci wbfi Ki| Depth wbYq Kivi Rb Multi storiyed Gi D = C S0.7 [ sowers & sowers , 1970 Page -418 Dr. K.R. Arora, Formula-17.1] hLvb D= Depth of Exploration C= Constant , 3 for light steel & Narrow concrete building 6 for Heavy steel & Wide concrete building S= No. of storey Field test G hvIqvi c~e GKRb BwwbqviK AekB RvbZ ne h, cvweZ f~wgZ wK cwigvb evwis KiZ ne| mvavibZ QvU febi Rb GKUv evwis B h_ | Avi hw` f~wgi cwigvb 0.4 hectares Gi KvQvKvwQ nq ZLb 5wU evi nvj B h_ | hvi ga GKUv Centre G Ges Abwj Pvi KYvi | Multi storied building Gi Rb Bore hole building Gi me KYvi Ges important location G KiZ ne, Spacing ne 10 - 30m depend Kie subsurface condition Ges loading Gi Dci| Highway Gi Rb proposed centre line A_ev along the proposal ditch line eivei drill KiZ ne| G evi nvj 150-300m cici KiZ ne. Concrete dam Gi bore hole Gi Spacing 40 - 80 m vary Ki| ENGR. MD SHAHIDUZZAMAN (KIRON) [Page-419, Dr. K.R Arora] mvaviZ Soil Gi Characteristics RvbZ soil exploration Kivi Rb cvP aibi Method use Kiv nq| (i)Auger boring (ii) Wash boring (iii) Rotary boring (iv) Percussion boring (v) core boring evsjv`k Avgiv mvaviYZ Wash Boring Method G Soil test Kivi Rb Field SPT Ges Soil sample collect Kwi| Zvi Rb Avgiv Standard Penetration Test Use Kwi| Standard Penetration Test Kiv nq mvavibZ cohesionless soil Gi Rb| GUv mePq ekx useful cohesionless soil Gi Relative Density Ges Angle of Shearing Resistance ei Kivi Rb | GUv Aek cohesive soil Gi Rb unconfined compressive strength wbYq Kivi Rb eeZ nq | GB Test Gi mvaviYZ GKUv Split Spoon Sampler _vK hv w`q Soil Sample Collect Kiv nq Ges GZ 63.5KwR GKUv Hammer _vK hv w`q H sampler K Drilling rod mnKvi drive Kiv nq| G D Hammer 760mm Dci _K co Ges wgwbU 30 blows `q| mvavibZ SPT Collect Kiv nq cwZ 1.5 wgUvi Ai Ai 6 6 6 Gi Rb | Gi ga c_g 6 evwis Gi Rb KZUzKz blow jvM, 2q ENGR. MD SHAHIDUZZAMAN (KIRON) Ges 3q 6 Gi Rb KZ blow jvM Zv count Kiv nq| Ze SPT wnmve Kivi mgq c_g 6 Gi Rb cqvRbxq blow wnmve Avbv nq bv| Zvi ci 6 , 6 Gi Rb hv jvM Zv hvM Ki total SPT wbYq Kiv nq| hw` 6 Gi Rb 50 blows Gi Dci jvM ZLb Avi drive Kiv nq bv& Ges Test discontinuous wnmve Mb Kiv nq| [ Dr. K.R. Arora, Page-427] Split Spoon Sampler nQ hv w`q Soil Sample collect Kiv nq| mvavibZ GwU 675mm j^v nq Ges Gi Afixb Dia 38mm Ges ewnfvM 50mm nq| GB Sampler K Drilling rod mv_ attach Ki ivLv nq| Avgiv mvavibZ wd nZ `y aibi Soil Sample collect Kwi | (i) Disturbed Sample : Soil Gi index property Rvbvi Rb hgb Grain size , Plasticity Characteristics, Specific gravity wbbq Kivi Rb eenvi Kiv nq| (ii) Undisturbed Sample : mvavibZ Unconfined Compressive strength , Settlement Characteristics Compressibility, Permeability BZvw` wbYq Kivi Rb eenvi Kiv nq| wd nZ Avgiv h SPT collect Kwi Zvi viv Avgiv eySZ cvwi h Soil Condition Kgb ne| wb SPT Value Gi Dci wbfi Ki Soil condition wK iKg nZ cvi Zv Table Gi gvag `Iqv nj| ENGR. MD SHAHIDUZZAMAN (KIRON) For Clay : [ Table 17.3, P-567, B.M. Das] SPT ( N) Consistency Unconfined compressive Strength KN/m2 lb/ft2 0-------- --------------------- 0 0 Very Soft 2-------- -------------------- 25 500 Soft 4---------- --------------------- 50 1000 Medium soft 8--------- -------------------- 100 2000 Stiff 16-------- ------------------- 200 4000 Very stiff 32-------- ----------------- 400 8000 Hard >32 >400 >8000 ENGR. MD SHAHIDUZZAMAN (KIRON) For Clay [ Table 17.2, P-429, Dr. K.R. Arora ] SPT N Consistency qu (KN/m2) 0-2 Very Soft 0 400 >50 Very hard 22 ----- ENGR. MD SHAHIDUZZAMAN (KIRON) For Sand [P-429, Table 17.1 Dr. K.R. Arora] SPT N Consistency o Angle of internal friction () 0-4 Very loose 6 250 -320 4-10 Loose 10 270 -350 10-30 Medium Loose 17 300 -400 30-50 Dense 19 350 -450 >50 Very dense 19 >450 Correlation between relative density & co-efficient of earth pressure to know the stress history of the soil deposit- (M. Tomlinson) Relative Density K0 Loose 0.5 Medium dense 0.45 Dense 0.35 SPT K 0-10 0.5 30-50 1.0 Foundation Analysis Ges Design Kivi Rb soil Gi physical Ges Engineering properties Rvbv cqvRb| ENGR. MD SHAHIDUZZAMAN (KIRON) 1. Strength Parameter: Angle of internal friction Cohesion, c (Mpa) Stress-strain relationship Unconfined Compression strength (Mpa) (2) Compressibility Index for amount and rate of Settlement - Natural void ratio, eo - Compression Index , Cc (3) Gravimetric Data: - Natural moisture content (%) - Specific gravity, G - Unit weight, (gm/cc) - Liquid Limit (%) - Plastic limit (%) mvaviYZ laboratory Z Avgiv wbi Test jv Perform Kwi| (1) Natural Moisture Content. (2) Grain Size Analysis (3) Atterberg Limits. (4) Direct Shear Test. (5) Unconfined Compression Test. (6) Consolidation Test. (7) Specific Gravity Test. ENGR. MD SHAHIDUZZAMAN (KIRON) (1) Moisture content: Apparatus Name: Metal container with lid (air-tight, non-corrodible) Temp-1050-1100 C controlled. Desiccators, Tong (one pair) GwU mvavibZ mass of water Gi mv_ mass of solid Gi GKwU AbycvZ| GK % Abymvi cKvk Kiv nq | W = MsMw W= 1 33 2W W W W *100 W1 = wt of two container with lid W2 = + wet soil w3 = + dry soil High water content liquid satate. 1. No shearing resistance. 2. Can flow like liquids. 3. No resistance to shear deformation. 4. Shear strength=0 (zero) Low water content Stiffer state Develop resistance to Shearing resistance. ENGR. MD SHAHIDUZZAMAN (KIRON) Typical value of moisture content: Type of soil Value (%) Soft organic clay Soft Clay Stiff Clay Loose Uniform Sand Dense Loose Angular Grained Silty Sand Dense 90-120 30-50 21 30 20 25 15 Grain size Analysis: Grain size Analysis Kiv nq gyjZ Soil grain Gi size Rvbvi Rb Ges Full Soil profile percent Abymvi wK cwigvb Kvb particle DcwZ Zv Rvbvi Rb | Apparatus name: Table 1.1, P-5 ,R.B. Peck & Hanson:- Practical size limits of soil constituents ASTM classification (in mm):- Gravel >4.75 mm. Coarse sand 4.75 -2.00 mm Medium sand 2.00 - 0.425 Fine sand 0.425-0.075 mm Fines (combined silt & clay) 2 mm Sand 0.060 - 2.0 mm Silt 0.002 -0.06 mm Clay 40 Very high plasticity ENGR. MD SHAHIDUZZAMAN (KIRON) SL PL LL [Fig 4.1, P-70, K.R. Arora [Page- 23, Peck & Hanson Fig 1.11] Diagram of the soil moisture scale showing atterberg limits corresponding physical state & approximate consistency of remolded soils Soil moisture scale Physical state consistency WL liquid limit liquid very soft Plastic range -------- Soft Wp Plastic limit Semi Solid Stiff --------------- Very stiff Ws Shrinkage limit Air dry solid extremely stiff Hygroscopic moisture Hard Oven dry --------------- Very Hard Volm Water content Solid Semi Solid Plastic Liquid ENGR. MD SHAHIDUZZAMAN (KIRON) -- If water content close to liquid limit soil is normally consolidated. -- If water content is close to plastic limit soil is some to heavily over consolidated. -- If water content is intermediate soil is some what over consolidated. -- If water content is greater than liquid limit soil is on verge of being a viscous liquid. [K.R.Arora, P-81] Sensitivity:- A