Click here to load reader

Solubilities of phosphates and other sparingly soluble ... NATIONALBUREAUOFSTANDARDSREPORT NBSPROJECT NBSREPORT 311.05-11-3110561 May28,1971 10599 ProgressReport on SOLUBILITIESOFPHOSPHATESANDOTHER

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)

Text of Solubilities of phosphates and other sparingly soluble ... NATIONALBUREAUOFSTANDARDSREPORT...


    10 599

    Progress Report







    The National Bureau of Standards ' was established by an act of Congress March 3, 1901 . Today,

    in addition to serving as the Nation’s central measurement laboratory, the Bureau is a principal

    focal point in the Federal Government for assuring maximum application of the physical and

    engineering sciences to the advancement of technology in industry and commerce. To this end

    the Bureau conducts research and provides central national services in four broad program

    areas. These are: (1) basic measurements and standards. (2) materials measurements and

    standards, (3) technological measurements and standards, and (4) transfer of technology.

    The Bureau comprises the Institute for Basic Standards, the Institute for Materials Research, the

    Institute for Applied Technology, the Center for Radiation Research, the Center for Computer

    Sciences and Technology, and the Office for Information Programs.

    THE INSTITUTE FOR BASIC STANDARDS provides the central basis within the United States of a complete and consistent system of physical measurement; coordinates that system with

    measurement systems of other nations; and furnishes essential services leading to accurate and

    uniform physical measurements throughout the Nation’s scientific community, industry, and com-

    merce. The Institute consists of an Office of Measurement Services and the following technical


    Applied Mathematics—Electricity—Metrology—Mechanics—Heat—Atomic and Molec- ular Physics—Radio Physics -—Radio Engineering -—Time and Frequency -—Astro- physics -—Cryogenics.


    THE INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS RESEARCH conducts materials research leading to im- proved methods of measurement standards, and data on the properties of well-characterized

    materials needed by industry, commerce, educational institutions, and Government; develops,

    produces, and distributes standard reference materials; relates the physical and chemical prop-

    erties of materials to their behavior and their interaction with their environments; and provides

    advisory and research services to other Government agencies. The Institute consists of an Office

    of Standard Reference Materials and the following divisions:

    Analytical Chemistry—Polymers—Metallurgy—Inorganic Materials—Physical Chemistry. THE INSTITUTE FOR APPLIED TECHNOLOGY provides technical services to promote the use of available technology and to facilitate technological innovation in industry and Gov-

    ernment; cooperates with public and private organizations in the development of technological

    standards, and test methodologies; and provides advisory and research services for Federal, state,

    and local government agencies. The Institute consists of the following technical divisions and


    Engineering Standards—Weights and Measures— Invention and Innovation — Vehicle Systems Research—Product Evaluation—Building Research—Instrument Shops—Meas- urement Engineering—Electronic Technology—Technical Analysis.

    THE CENTER FOR RADIATION RESEARCH engages in research, measurement, and ap- plication of radiation to the solution of Bureau mission problems and the problems of other agen-

    cies and institutions. The Center consists of the following divisions:

    Reactor Radiation—Linac Radiation—Nuclear Radiation—Applied Radiation. THE CENTER FOR COMPUTER SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY conducts research and provides technical services desigred to aid Government agencies in the selection, acquisition,

    and effective use of automatic data processing equipment: and serves as the principal focus

    for the development of Federal standards for automatic data processing equipment, techniques,

    and computer languages. The Center consists of the following offices and divisions:

    Information Processing Standards—Computer Information — Computer Services— Sys- tems Development—Information Processing Technology.

    THE OFFICE FOR INFORMATION PROGRAMS promotes optimum dissemination and accessibility of scientific information generated within NBS and other agencies of the Federal government; promotes the development of the National Standard Reference Data System and a

    system of information analysis centers dealing with the broader aspects of the National Measure-

    ment System, and provides appropriate services to ensure that the NBS staff has optimum ac- cessibility to tne scientific information of the world. The Office consists of the following units:

    Office of Standard Reference Data—Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information —Office of Technical Information and Publications—Library—Office of Public Information—Office of International Relations.

    i Headquarters and Laboratories at Gaithersburg, Maryland, unless otherwise noted; mailing address Washington, D.C. 20234.

    Located at Boulder. Colorado 80302.

    3 Located at 5285 Port Royal Road. Springfield, Virginia 22151



    311.05-11-3110561 May 28, 1971 10 599

    Progress Report




    Walter E. Brown, Director

    American Dental Association Research Unit

    National Bureau of Standards

    Washington, D. C. 20234

    This investigation was supported in part by research grant DE00572 to the American Dental Association from the National Institute of Dental Research and is part of the dental research program conducted by the National Bureau of Standards in cooperation with the American Dental Association; the United States Army Medical Research and Development Command; the Dental Sciences Division of the School of Aerospace Medicine, USAF; the National Institute of Dental Research; and the Veterans Administration.

    NATIONAL BUREAU OF SI for use within the Government,

    and review. For this reason, th

    whole or in part, is not autho

    Bureau of Standards, Washingt

    the Report has been specifically


    Approved for public release by the

    Director of the National Institute of

    Standards and Technology (NIST)

    on October 9, 2015.

    ss accounting documents intended

    subjected to additional evaluation

    listing of this Report, either in

    3 Office of the Director, National

    iy the Government agency for which

    opies for its own use.



  • II I 1*1


    Rapid increases in phosphate levels in lakes and rivers

    near heavily populated areas have made the understanding of

    factors that control these concentrations a matter of great

    social importance. Phosphate is thought to be the nutrient

    which is the limiting factor in the growth of algae in most

    waters (1); it is possible that carbonate, under some con-

    ditions of heavy pollution, may also be a limiting substance.

    Solubilities of salts of these two anions have been proposed

    as having considerable control over their concentrations in

    lake waters. The same considerations do not apply to nitrogen,

    however, because all of its salts are quite soluble. Even

    though metabolic processes, such as growth and decay of

    organisms, are probably of primary importance in establishing

    the concentrations of dissolved orthophosphate and carbonate

    ion at any instant, particularly during warm periods, it

    appears reasonable that physicochemical processes such as

    dissolution of suspended particles and sediments, leaching

    of rocks and soil, and precipitation of insoluble salts have

    major roles in establishing over-all, long term levels.

    The observation that continual entry of phosphate into a

    lake does not increase the phosphate level in proportion to

    the amount that has entered (1) clearly indicates that at least

    some of the phosphate is being removed by a precipitation

  • process. The high levels of calcium frequently found in

    lake waters suggest that a calcium phosphate may be one of

    the forms by which it is removed. This alone is justification

    for the treatment given here on the solubilities of calcium

    phosphates. The emphasis here is on thermodynamic and opera-

    tional points of view and on making the treatment sufficiently

    general so that it can be applied to sparingly soluble phosphates

    of cations other than calcium and to salts of other weak acids.

    Much of the information described here was developed in

    studies ( 2-8 ) of calcium phosphates for application to systems

    containing tooth, bone and dental calculus; the method of

    approach, however, is equally applicable to other complex,

    multicomponent systems.

    Solubilities of sparingly soluble salts is a subject

    that has been basic to chemistry over the years, and more recently

    has been treated extensively as applied specifically to

    minerals and limnetic solutions (9,10). One might wonder what

    more can be said on the subject.