Click here to load reader

Some thoughts and remarks on Structural Materials and Data ... · PDF file Some thoughts and remarks on Structural Materials and Data Bases Fusion road map, R&D, Issues in qualification

  • View
    1

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Some thoughts and remarks on Structural Materials and Data ... · PDF file Some thoughts and...

  • Some thoughts and remarks on Structural Materials and Data Bases

    Fusion road map, R&D, Issues in qualification and validation of materials

    Facilities needed ….

    Eberhard Diegele (F4E) With contributions from Michael Rieth (KIT)( )

    International Workshop, MFE Road Mapping in the ITER Era 7th S t b 2011 P i t7th September 2011, Princeton

    This contribution and any comments during the workshop do not necessarily represent the opinion or the policy of the EC or F4E

  • ContentContent Address: Structural Materials

    – Preliminaries – BB and divertor structural materials issues – Data bases – Status of R&D (Spotlights)

    • Advantages &• Issues & Limitations

    • Sources of Uncertainties • Fabrication: Technology and Joininggy g

    – Facility needs – Concluding thoughts

  • Preliminaries

    Slide 3

  • Materials Development [Mission for DEMO][Mission for DEMO]

    Mission: Development, testing and qualification of structural (and functional)Development, testing and qualification of structural (and functional)

    materials suitable to design and to construct BB and divertors for DEMO (and FPP).

    The aim is to ha e materials & ke fabrication technologies & (materialsThe aim is to have materials & key fabrication technologies & (materials systems) needed for DEMO fully developed and validated within the next two decades.

    Scope: Fusion Power Plant – driven by “economy”: Structural materials to allow operation of BB of 5 6 (fp)years beforeStructural materials to allow operation of BB of 5-6 (fp)years before replacement for a as large as possible T-window (thermal efficiency) 2-3 fpy for Divertor

    Note: Need to compromise on what seems to be achievable at time of (i) DEMO start and (ii) operation of a second/final phase and (iii) FPP.

    Slide 4

    Don”t expect a BB structural material to achieve the whole wish list such as 100-150 dpa & 1500-2000 appm He in 2030/2035 as to be fix and firm

  • Materials-design “synergy” an iterative and integrated approachan iterative and integrated approach

    Materials development and DEMO/FPP design require an iterative process Th b t il bl t i l d th i ti d t d l• The best available materials and their properties are used to develop designs (this includes change in material selection when severe issues are anticipate – or new approaches and concepts or reduction in scope)in scope)

    • Design studies such as the former EU PPCS [ARIES US] identify objectives for improvement and can guide materials R&D

    • [Upcoming] design studies exploit advances assumed to be• [Upcoming] design studies exploit advances assumed to be achievable in a 10-20 year time frame and define milestones and scope for the R&D program.

    . >> Progressive development of materials & materials data base – materials models – design methodologies – design analyses and design improvements

    • Irradiation effects remain a major source of uncertainty in design and analysis • What can we do in the absence of high-fluence data simulating the

    Slide 5

    What can we do in the absence of high fluence data simulating the correct n-spectrum ?

  • Candidate materials for I l tIn vessel components RequirementsPlant Requirements:

    Environmental compatibility

    Impact on Material Selection: Low activation Environmental compatibility

    Safety Cost-effectiveness Reliability

    Low level waste (Sufficient) Temperature window Performance and lifetimeReliability

    Sustainability

    Attractive physical & mechanical properties

    Elements to design alloys Fe, Cr, Ta, Ti, W, V, Si, C [only few others]

    Attractive physical & mechanical properties High radiation resistance Reliable manufacturing processes

    Options for structural materials narrow down for breeding blankets or divertor RAFM (Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitc) steels ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) RAFM & RAF steels

    Tungsten alloys

    ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) RAFM & RAF steels SiC/SiC composites

    Slide 6

    Tungsten alloys Vanadium alloys (?)

    [Copper alloys NO in view of FPP! Execpt to realize components in test facilities

  • Materials Development The Challenge towards DEMOThe Challenge towards DEMO

    Microstructure evolution under n-irradiation

    Damage to lattice (cascades -> point defects -> clustering of defects) [dpa]

    Transmutations (He and H -> formation of bubbles and/or voids) [appm]

    1st Challenge: Degradation of properties. To understand life time limiting phenomena.

    F i DEMO Fi i G IV

    g p >> To improve materials. ITER 1 dpa ->> DEMO / FPP order of 100 dpa For comparison DEMO Fission Gen IV Displacement per atom [dpa] 80 (50-100) up to 100

    1000 (F ) Transmutation (He) [appm]

    ~ 1000 (Fe) ~ 5000 (SiC)

    ~ 20

    2nd Challenge:

    Slide 7

    g To manage the excessive amount of Helium.

  • Data bases

    Slide 8

  • Road Map for breeder blankets Fl f d t & i f ti

    Advanced stage, Commercial

    Primary Option

    > Flow of data & information

    DEMO Advanced Blanket Tests

    Advanced Options

    Limited Efforts Design Const. Operation

    Licensing

    Advanced Blanket Tests

    D i Lif i

    ITER Test Blanket Modules

    Development of Blanket and Materials

    Complimentary • MTR for irradiation campaignsDesign

    Data

    Lifetime

    Evaluation &

    Regulation

    Development of Blanket and Materials Primary option (1st generation): RAF/M, Water of He cooled BlanketAdvanced materials (V Alloys,Advanced materials (V Alloys, SiC/SiC) Advanced High

    Development of Blanket and Materials

    Primary option (1st generation): RAF/M, Water of He cooled Blanket

    Materials

    campaigns •Develop and validate models at man le els

    Li, Flibe, High T Gas)

    SiC/SiC) Advanced High Temperature Blankets (Liquid LiPb,

    Li, Flibe, High T Gas)g p

    Materials (ODS steels, V Alloys, SiC/SiC) for

    high temperature blankets

    many levels (multi- physics)

    Slide 9

    IFMIF EVEDA,

    Construction Irradiation Tests, Blanket Functional Tests,

    Licensing data

  • Material Data (Base) Interaction Design – Materials R&D

    Which materials ?

    Which data are needed ?

    When / at which step in the design process are they needed ?When / at which step in the design process are they needed ?

    How are data generated ?

    Which facilities are needed ?

    What is the status ?

    What else is needed ? Modelling (various reasons and various models)

    Extrapolations (?) Justifications Guidance on useModelling (various reasons and various models)

    [come back on this in IFMIF presentation] Assistance in designing: Development of design rules or guidelines on usage

    Guidance on use Interaction with other areas

    Slide 10

    Property depend on fabrication, product form, environment (use)

  • Material Data Base Required for TBM or DEMO (BB)Required for TBM or DEMO (BB)

    Requires extensive material data basesRequires extensive material data bases

    Full set: Data are required on all properties

    Influence: safety, reliabilityInfluence: safety, reliability Influence: performance or operational limits Determine: life time [to replacement]

    • in the whole T-range of application (including off-normal conditions!) • under various environmental condition • In particular under n-irradiation

    Slide 11

  • Material Data Base Required for TBM or DEMO (BB)Required for TBM or DEMO (BB) Requires extensive material data bases (continued)

    For various product forms (eg different plate thickness used for TBM such asFor various product forms (eg different plate thickness used for TBM such as 5 mm, 14 mm, 25 mm, 40 mm have different characteristics)

    Multiple heats (minimum 5, from different produces) are required to get a “code qualified material” approved

    (Technical) Specification usually allow variations that need to be accounted for [example from RAFM: Low activation, material “too clean” implies issues to fulfil some minimum mechanical properties at low and high T)

    Different data kind of data needed: “data base with real data and properties” are needed for verification analyses and “best estimates” in life time analysesare needed for verification analyses and best estimates in life time analyses

    Vs Engineering data (“averaged” or “minimum” with fixed safety factors or on statistical approaches)

    Slide 12

    statistical approaches) ....

  • This is not to scare you

    Slide 13

  • Slide 14

  • Material Data Base Required for TBM or DEMO (BB)Required for TBM or DEMO (BB)

    Data required for design (and licensing) are different from data measured orData required for design (and licensing) are different from data measured or required during R&D phases

    Each data point must be traceable in any details (from product heat number, orientation and location of specimens following standards verified )orientation and loca

Search related